友好国や同盟国となることは勿論の事、戦争や反乱、和解や離反の時代を通して、イギリスとアメリカは第二次世界大戦中にこれらの深く根付いた絆を固めた。これは特別な関係として知られており、今もなお第一線のニュース解説者によって「大西洋を越えた重要な同盟」(the key trans-Atlantic alliance)と表現され、米国上院議会外交小委員会の欧州担当委員長も2010年に「世界の安定性の土台の一つ」(one of the cornerstones of stability around the world)として認めている。
今日では、現在のイギリスの外交政策において、アメリカとの関係は「最も重要な二国間関係」(most important bilateral partnership)を象徴するものとされ、対するアメリカの外交政策でもイギリスとの関係を最も重要かつ恒久的な二国間関係の一つと断言しており、貿易、商業、金融、科学技術、学術、芸術の分野における一連の政事と相互協力、さらに政府および軍の諜報活動、アメリカ軍とイギリス軍の間の合同軍事作戦や平和維持活動等に裏付けられている。イギリスは常にアメリカ国内で最大の投資者であり続け、その逆もまた然りである。
- 1 国の比較
- 2 歴史
- 3 貿易と投資
- 4 観光
- 5 交通
- 6 表敬訪問および公式訪問
- 7 外交
- 8 両国に共通する国際機関・団体・活動
- 9 文化的遺産
- 10 大衆文化
- 11 ギャラリー
- 12 関連項目
- 13 脚注
- 14 外部リンク
|面積||243,610 km2 (94,060 sq mi)||9,850,476 km2 (3,803,290 sq mi)|
|人口密度||255.6/km2 (661.9/sq mi)||33.7/km2 (87.4/sq mi)|
|最大の都市||ロンドン – 8,174,100人 (13,709,000 都市部)||ニューヨーク – 8,244,910 (18,897,109 都市部)|
|政府||単一 議院内閣 立憲君主制||連邦 大統領 共和制|
|公用語||英語 (事実上)||英語 (事実上)|
|主要宗教||71.5% キリスト教, 15.4% 無宗教, 2.7% イスラム教, 0.95% ヒンデュー教, 0.57% シク教, 0.45% ユダヤ教, 0.26% 仏教.||78.4% キリスト教, 16.1% 無宗教, 1.7% ユダヤ教, 0.7% 仏教, 0.6% イスラム教, 0.4% ヒンデュー教|
|民族||92.1% 白人, 4.4% アジア系, 2% 黒人, 1.2% 多人種, 0.4% その他||74% 白人, 14.8% ヒスパニック及びラテン系 (あらゆる人種において), 13.4% アフリカ系,
6.5% その他の人種, 4.4% アジア系, 2.0% 二以上の人種,
0.68% インディアンあるいはアラスカ先住民, 0.14% ハワイ先住民あるいは太平洋諸島
|国内総生産 (名目)||US$2.452 trillion (一人当たりUS$38,891)||$15.094 trillion (一人当たり$48,386)|
|国内総生産 (購買力平価説)||$2.308 trillion (一人当たり$36,605)||$15.094 trillion (一人当たり$48,386)|
|軍事予算||$62.7 billion||$711.0 billion|
After several failed attempts the first permanent English settlement in mainland North America came in 1607 at Jamestown in the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. By 1624, the Colony and Dominion of Virginia would cease as a charter colony administered by the Virginia Company of London as it became a crown colony. The Pilgrims were a small Protestant-sect based in England and Amsterdam; they sent a group of settlers on the Mayflower. After drawing up the Mayflower Compact by which they gave themselves broad powers of self-governance, they established the Plymouth Colony in 1620. In 1630 the Puritans established the much larger Massachusetts Bay Colony; they sought to reform the Church of England by creating a new and more pure church in the New World.
Other colonies followed in Province of Maine (1622), Province of Maryland (1632), Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (1636) and Connecticut Colony (1636). Later came the founding of Province of Carolina (1663) (divided in 1729 into the Province of North Carolina and the Province of South Carolina). The Province of New Hampshire was founded in 1691. Finally came the Province of Georgia in 1732.
The Province of New York was formed from the conquered Dutch colony of New Netherland. In 1674, the Province of New Jersey was split off from New York. In 1681 William Penn was awarded a royal charter in 1681 by King Charles II to found Province of Pennsylvania.
The colonies each reported separately to London. There was a failed effort to group the colonies into the Dominion of New England, 1686-89.
During the 17th century, an estimated 350,000 English and Welsh migrants arrived as permanent residents in the Thirteen Colonies, which in the century after the Acts of Union 1707, was surpassed in rate and number by Scottish and Irish migrants.
The period of British settler colonization saw the introduction of liberal administrative, juridical, and market institutions positively associated with socioeconomic development. At the same time, colonial policy was also quasi-mercantilist, encouraging trade inside the Empire, and discouraging trade with other powers, and discouraging the rise of manufacturing in the colonies, which had been established to increase the trade and wealth of the mother country. Britain made much greater profits from the sugar trade of its commercial colonies in the Caribbean.
The introduction of coercive labor institutions was another feature of the colonial period. All of the Thirteen Colonies were involved in the slave trade. Slaves in the Middle Colonies and New England Colonies typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers and craftsmen. Early on, slaves in the Southern Colonies worked primarily in agriculture, on farms and plantations growing indigo, rice, cotton, and tobacco.
The French and Indian War, fought between 1754 and 1763, was the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between France and the Kingdom of Great Britain in North America, resulted in the British acquisition of New France, with it French Catholic population. As part of the terms dictated in the Treaty of Paris signed in 1763, the French ceded control of French Louisiana east of the Mississippi River to the British, which became known as the Indian Reserve.
The Thirteen Colonies gradually began to experience more limited self-government. Additionally, British mercantilist policies became more stringent, benefiting the mother country which resulted in trade restrictions, thereby limiting the growth of the colonial economy and artificially constraining colonial merchants' earning potential. Prefaced by debt accrued during the French and Indian War of which the American Colonies were expected to help repay, tensions escalated from 1765 to 1775 over issues of taxation without representation and control by King George III. Stemming from the Boston Massacre when British Redcoats opened fire on civilians in 1770, rebellion consumed the outraged colonists. The British Parliament earlier imposed a series of taxes such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and later on, the Tea Act of 1773, of which an angry mob of colonists protested about in the Boston Tea Party by dumping chests of tea into Boston Harbor. The British Parliament responded to the defiance of the colonists by passing what the colonials called the Intolerable Acts in 1774. This course of events ultimately triggered the first shots fired in the Battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775 and effectively, the beginning of the American War of Independence itself. A British victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775 would agitate tensions even further. While the goal of attaining independence was sought by a majority known as Patriots, a minority known as Loyalists wished to remain as British subjects indefinitely. However, when the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in May 1775, deliberations conducted by notable figures such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and John Adams would eventually come to the conclusion of seeking full independence from the mother country. Thus, the Declaration of Independence, unanimously ratified on July 4, 1776, was a radical and decisive break. The United States of America became the first colony in the world to successfully achieve independence in the modern era.
In early 1776 the Patriots forced all the British officials and soldiers out of the new nation. However, the British returned in force in August 1776, and captured New York City, which became their base until the war finally ended in 1783. The British, using their powerful navy, could capture major ports, but 90% of the Americans lived in rural areas where they had full control. After the Patriots captured a British invasion force moving down from Canada in the Saratoga campaign of 1777, France entered the war as an ally of the US, and added the Netherlands and Spain as French allies. Britain lost naval superiority and had no major allies and few friends in Europe. The British strategy then was refocused on the South, where they expected large numbers of Loyalists would fight alongside the redcoats. Far fewer Loyalists took up arms than Britain needed; royal efforts to control the countryside in the South failed. When the British army tried to return to New York, its rescue fleet was turned back by the French fleet and its army was captured by combined French-American forces under General George Washington at the Siege of Yorktown in October 1781. That effectively ended the fighting.
The Treaty of Paris ended the war in 1783 on terms quite favorable to the new nation. It gained control of nearly all the land east of the Mississippi and south of the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. However the British colonies of East and West Florida, were given to Spain as its reward. The Native American tribes allied with Britain were major losers; the British ignored them at the Peace conference, and most came under American control unless they moved to Canada or to Spanish territory. However the British kept forts in the American Midwest (especially in Michigan and Wisconsin), where they supplied weapons to Indian tribes.
Trade resumed between the two nations when the war ended. The British allow all exports to America but forbade some American food exports to its colonies in the West Indies. British exports reached £3.7 million, compared to imports of only £750,000. The imbalance caused a shortage of gold in U.S.
In 1785, John Adams became the first American plenipotentiary minister, now known as an ambassador, to the Court of St James's. King George III received him graciously. In 1791, Great Britain sent its first diplomatic envoy, George Hammond, to the United States.
When Great Britain and France went to war in 1793, relations between the United States and Great Britain also verged on war. Tensions were subdued when the Jay Treaty was signed in 1794, which established a decade of peace and prosperous trade relations. The historian Marshall Smelser argues that the treaty effectively postponed war with Britain, or at least postponed it until the United States was strong enough to handle it.
Bradford Perkins argued that the treaty was the first to establish a special relationship between Britain and the United States, with a second installment under Lord Salisbury. In his view, the treaty worked for ten years to secure peace between Britain and America: "The decade may be characterized as the period of "The First Rapprochement." As Perkins concludes,
"For about ten years there was peace on the frontier, joint recognition of the value of commercial intercourse, and even, by comparison with both preceding and succeeding epochs, a muting of strife over ship seizures and impressment. Two controversies with France… pushed the English-speaking powers even more closely together."
Starting at swords' point in 1794, the Jay treaty reversed the tensions, Perkins concludes: "Through a decade of world war and peace, successive governments on both sides of the Atlantic were able to bring about and preserve a cordiality which often approached genuine friendship."
Historian Joseph Ellis finds the terms of the treaty "one-sided in Britain's favor", but asserts a consensus of historians agrees that it was
"a shrewd bargain for the United States. It bet, in effect, on England rather than France as the hegemonic European power of the future, which proved prophetic. It recognized the massive dependence of the American economy on trade with England. In a sense it was a precocious preview of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), for it linked American security and economic development to the British fleet, which provided a protective shield of incalculable value throughout the nineteenth century. Mostly, it postponed war with England until America was economically and politically more capable of fighting one."
The U.S. proclaimed its neutrality in the wars between Britain and France (1793-1815), and profited greatly by selling food, timber and other supplies to both sides.
Thomas Jefferson had bitterly opposed the Jay Treaty because he feared it would strengthen anti-republican political enemies. When Jefferson became president in 1801, he did not repudiate the treaty. He kept the Federalist minister, Rufus King in London to negotiate a successful resolution to outstanding issues regarding cash payments and boundaries. The amity broke down in 1805, as relations turned increasingly hostile as a prelude to the War of 1812. Jefferson rejected a renewal of the Jay Treaty in the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty of 1806 as negotiated by his diplomats and agreed to by London; he never sent it to the Senate.
The international slave trade was suppressed after Great Britain passed the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in 1807, and the United States passed a similar law in the same year.
The United States imposed a trade embargo, namely the Embargo Act of 1807, in retaliation for Britain's blockade of France, which involved the visit and search of neutral merchantmen, and resulted in the suppression of Franco-United States trade for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars. The Royal Navy also boarded American ships and impressed sailors suspected of being British deserters. Western expansion into the American Midwest (Ohio to Wisconsin) was hindered by Indian tribes given munitions and support by British agents. Indeed Britain's goal was the creation of an independent Indian state to block American expansion.
After diplomacy and the boycott had failed, the issue of national honour and independence came to the fore. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; [Andrew] Jackson, who still bore scars from the first war of independence held that view with special conviction. The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but was it also vindication of American identity."
Finally in June 1812 President James Madison called for war, and overcame the opposition of Northeastern business interests. The American strategy called for a war against British shipping and especially cutting off food shipments to the British sugar plantations in the West Indies. Conquest of Canada was a tactic designed to give the Americans a strong bargaining position. The main British goal was to defeat France, so until that happened in 1814 the war was primarily defensive. To enlist allies among the Indians, led by Tecumseh, the British promised an independent Indian state would be created in American territory. Repeated American invasions of Canada were fiascoes, because of inadequate preparations, very poor generals, and the refusal of militia units to leave their home grounds. However the Americans took control of Lake Erie in 1813 and destroyed the power of the Indian allies of the British in the Northwest and Southeast. A major British raid burned the symbolic national buildings in Washington in 1814, but the British attack on Baltimore was repelled and the British commander was killed. The British invasion of New York in 1814 was a total failure, as was the British attempt to capture the key port of New Orleans in early 1815. Negotiations began in 1814 and produced the Treaty of Ghent, which restoring the status quo ante bellum. No territorial gains were made by either side, and the British plan to create an Indian nation was abandoned. The United Kingdom retained the theoretical right of impressment, but stopped impressing any sailors, while the United States dropped the issue for good. The U.S. celebrated the outcome as a victorious "second war of independence." The British, having finally defeated Napoleon at Waterloo, celebrated that triumph and largely forgot the war with America. Tensions between the U.S. and Canada were resolved through diplomacy. The War of 1812 marked the end of a long period of conflict (1775–1815) and ushered in a new era of peace between the two nations.
The Monroe Doctrine, a unilateral response in 1823 to a British suggestion of a joint declaration, expressed American hostility of further European encroachment in the Western hemisphere. Nevertheless, the United States benefited from the common outlook in British policy and its enforcement by the Royal Navy. In the 1840s several states defaulted on bonds owned by British investors. London bankers avoided state bonds afterwards, but invested heavily in American railroad bonds.
In several episodes the American general Winfield Scott proved a sagacious diplomat by tamping down emotions and reaching acceptable compromises. Scott handled the Caroline Affair in 1837. Rebels from British North America (now Ontario) fled to New York and used a small American ship called the Caroline to smuggle supplies into Canada after their rebellion was suppressed. In late 1837, Canadian militia crossed the border into the U.S. and burned the ship, leading to diplomatic protests, a flare-up of Anglophobia, and other incidents.
Tensions on the vague Maine-New Brunswick boundary involved rival teams of lumberjacks in the bloodless Aroostook War of 1839. There was no shooting but both sides tried to uphold national honor and gain a few more miles of timber land. Each side had an old secret map that apparently showed the other side had the better legal case, so compromise was easily reached in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, which settled the border. In 1859, the bloodless Pig War determined the question of where the border should be in relationship to the San Juan Islands and Gulf Islands. But, the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty proved to be an important step in improving relations.
In 1844-48 the two nations had overlapping claims to Oregon. The area was largely unsettled making it easy to end the crisis in 1848 a by compromise that split the region evenly, with British Columbia to Great Britain, and Washington, Idaho, and Oregon to America. The U.S. then turned its attention to Mexico, which threatened war over the annexation of Texas. Britain tried without success to moderate the Mexicans, but when the war began it remained neutral. The U.S. gained California, inwhich the British had shown only passing interest.
In the American Civil War a major Confederate goal was to win recognition from Britain and France, which it expected would lead them to war with the U.S. and enable the Confederacy to win independence. Because of the astute American diplomacy, no nation ever recognized the Confederacy and war with Britain was averted. Nevertheless there was considerable British sentiment in favor of weakening the U.S. by helping the South win. Throughout At the beginning of the war Britain issued a proclamation of neutrality. The Confederate States of America had assumed all along that Britain would surely enter the war to protect its vital supply of cotton. This "King Cotton" argument was one reason the Confederates felt confident in the first place about going to war, but the Southerners had never consulted the Europeans and were tardy in sending diplomats. Even before the fighting began in April 1861 Confederate citizens (acting without government authority) cut off cotton shipments in an effort to exert cotton diplomacy. It failed because Britain had warehouses filled with cotton, whose value was soaring; not until 1862 did shortages become acute.
The Trent Affair in late 1861 nearly caused a war. A warship of the U.S. Navy stopped the British civilian vessel RMS Trent and took off two Confederate diplomats, James Murray Mason and John Slidell. Britain prepared for war and demanded their immediate release. President Lincoln released the diplomats and the episode ended quietly.
Britain realized that any recognition of an independent Confederacy would be treated as an act of war against the United States. The British economy was heavily reliant on trade with the United States, most notably cheap grain imports which in the event of war, would be cut off by the Americans. Indeed the Americans would launch all-out naval war against the entire British merchant fleet.
Despite outrage and intense American protests, London allowed the British-built CSS Alabama to leave port and become a commerce raider under the naval flag of the Confederacy. The war ended in 1865; arbitration settled the issue in 1871, with a payment of $15.5 million in gold for the damages caused.
In January 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which was strongly supported by liberal elements in Britain. However the British government predicted it would create a race war and that intervention might be required on humanitarian grounds. There was no race war, however, and the declining capabilities of the Confederacy—such as loss of major ports and rivers—made its likelihood of success smaller and smaller.
When Britain and Venezuela disputed the boundary between the latter country and British Guiana in 1895, domestic pressures inside the U.S. forced President Grover Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney to demand international arbitration. The tribunal in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana. By standing with a Latin American nation against the encroachment of the British Empire, the U.S. improved relations with the Latin Americans, and the cordial manner of the procedure improved diplomatic relations with Britain.
The Alaska Purchase of 1867 drew the boundary between Canada and Alaska in ambiguous fashion. With the gold rush into the Yukon in 1898, miners had to enter through Alaska and Canada wanted the boundary redrawn to obtain its own port. Canada rejected the American offer of a long-term lease on an American port. The issue went to arbitration and the Alaska boundary dispute was finally resolved by an arbitration in 1903. The decision favoured the U.S. as the British judge sided with the three American judges against the two Canadian judges on the arbitration panel. Canadian public opinion was outraged that their interests were sacrificed by London for the benefit of British-American harmony.
The Great Rapprochement is a term that was used to specifically describe the convergence of social and political objectives between the United Kingdom and the United States from 1895 until World War I began in 1914. Ever since the War of 1812 ended in 1815, there were no serious threats of war and no hostile alliances. Although the border was very long and complex, border disputes were peacefully resolved. The large Irish Catholic element in the U.S. provided a major base for demands for Irish independence, and occasioned anti-British rhetoric, especially at election time.
The most notable sign of improving relations during the Great Rapprochement was Britain's actions during the Spanish–American War. With the onslaught of war beginning in 1898, the British had an initial policy of supporting the Spanish Empire and its colonial rule over Cuba since the perceived threat of American occupation and a territorial acquisition of Cuba by the United States might harm British trade and commerce interests within its own imperial possessions in the West Indies. However, after the United States made genuine assurances that it would grant Cuba's independence, which eventually occurred in 1902 under the terms dictated in the Platt Amendment, the British abandoned this policy and ultimately sided with the United States unlike most other European powers who supported Spain. In return the U.S. government supported Britain during the Boer War, although many Americans favored the Boers.
Victory in the Spanish-American War gave the United States its own rising empire. President Theodore Roosevelt built the Great White Fleet to demonstrate the power projection of a large blue water navy that was second only to the Royal Navy in size and firepower.
The United States had a policy of strict neutrality. The United States was willing to export any product to any country. Germany could not import anything due to the British blockade, so the American trade was with the Allies. It was financed by the sale of American bonds and stocks owned by the British. When that was exhausted the British borrowed heavily from New York banks. When that credit ran dry in late 1916, a financial crisis was at hand for Britain.
American public opinion moved steadily against Germany, especially in the wake of the Belgian atrocities in 1914 and the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915. The large German American and Irish Catholic element called for staying out of the war, but the German Americans were increasingly marginalized. The Germans renewed unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 knowing it would lead to war with the U.S. Germany's invitation to Mexico to join together in war against the U.S. in the Zimmermann Telegram was the last straw, and the US declared war in April 1917. The Americans planned to send money, food and munitions, but it soon became clear that millions of soldiers would be needed to decide the war on the Western Front.
The U.S. sent two million soldiers to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing, with more on the way as the war ended. Many of the Allied forces were skeptical of competence the American Expeditionary Force, which in 1917 was severely lacking in training and experience. By summer 1918, the American doughboys were arriving at 10,000 a day, as the German forces were shrinking because they had run out of manpower.
Although Woodrow Wilson had wanted to wage war for the sake of humanity, the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles underlined in his Fourteen Points for Peace made it plainly clear that his diplomatic position had weakened with victory. The borders of Europe were redrawn on the basis of national self-determination, with the exception of Germany under the newly formed Weimar Republic. Financial reparations were imposed on the Germans, despite British reservations and American protests, largely because of France's desire for punitive peace and, in what many at the time deemed revenge, for previous conflicts with Germany in the 19th century.
The U.S. sponsored a successful Washington Naval Conference in 1922 that largely ended the naval arms race for a decade. World War I marked the end of the Royal Navy's superiority, an eclipse acknowledged in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, when the United States and the Britain agreed to equal tonnage quotas on warships. By 1932, the 1922 treaty was not renewed and Britain, Japan and the U.S. were again in a naval race.
In the 1920s, bilateral relations were generally friendly. In 1923 the government renegotiated its ₤978 million war debt to the U.S. Treasury by promising regular payments of ₤34 million for ten years then ₤40 million pounds for 52 years. The idea was for the U.S. to loan money to Germany, which in turn paid reparations to Britain, which in turn paid off its loans from the U.S. government. In 1931 all German payments ended, and in 1932 Britain suspended its payments to the U.S. The debt was finally repaid after 1945.
The U.S. refused to join the League of Nations, but its absence made little difference to British policy. While the United States participated in functional bodies of the League —to the satisfaction of Britain— it was a delicate issue linking the US to the League in public. Thus, major conferences, especially the Washington Conference of 1922 occurred outside League auspices. The US refused to send official delegates to League committees, instead sending unofficial "observers."
During the Great Depression, the United States was preoccupied with its own internal affairs and economic recovery, espousing an isolationist policy. When Britain in 1933 called the London Economic Conference to help resolve the depression, President Franklin D. Roosevelt killed it by refusing to cooperate.
The US was only sporadically active in European affairs throughout the 1930s. After the United States imposed a high tariff on foreign imports in 1930 called the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, Britain and the Empire built up imperial trade preferences, thereby attempting to promote trade internally and divert trade away from the United States. World trade plunged by over two-thirds, while trade between the U.S. and Britain shrank from $848 million in 1929 to $288 million in 1932, a decline of 66%.
Tensions over the Irish question faded with the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922. The American Irish had achieved their goal, and in 1938 its leader Joseph P. Kennedy became ambassador to the Court of St. James's. He moved in high London society and his daughter married into the aristocracy. Kennedy supported the policy of appeasement toward Germany, and when the war began he advised Washington that prospects for Britain's survival were bleak.
Though much of the American people were sympathetic to the United Kingdom and France during their dangerous confrontation with Nazi Germany, there was widespread opposition to possible American intervention in European affairs. This was highlighted in a series of Neutrality Acts which were ratified by the United States Congress in 1935, 1936, and 1937 respectively. However, Franklin Roosevelt's policy of cash-and-carry still allowed Britain and France to order munitions from the United States.
Winston Churchill, whose mother was an American, became prime minister after the Allies' failure to prevent the German invasion of Norway. After the fall of France, Franklin Roosevelt gave the United Kingdom and later the Soviet Union all aid short of war. The Destroyers for Bases Agreement which was signed in September 1940, gave the United States a ninety-nine-year rent-free lease of numerous land and air bases throughout the British Empire in exchange for the United Kingdom receiving possession of fifty destroyers from the United States Navy. Beginning in March 1941, the United States enacted Lend-Lease in the form of Sherman tanks, fighter airplanes, munitions, bullets, food, and medical supplies which were sent to the United Kingdom, $31.4 billion out of a total of $50.1 billion ($700 billion in 2007) sent to the Allies.
Before the attack on Pearl Harbor and the declaration of war by the United States Congress on Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan in December 1941, two United States Navy destroyers had already been torpedoed on convoy duties in the North Atlantic Ocean. The United States nevertheless became extensively involved in the European theatre due to the real and perceived threat of the Axis Powers eventually reaching American shores, contingent on the Allies in Fortress Europe and to another extent, the Allies in the Pacific War, being defeated. 73,000 British and 60,000 Americans stormed the beaches of Normandy on June 6, 1944, and both nations' armed forces fought alongside each other at the invasion of Sicily from July to August 1943, the Battle of Monte Cassino from January to May 1944, Operation Market Garden in September 1944, the Battle of Overloon from September to October 1944, the Battle of the Bulge from December 1944 to January 1945, and many other numerous battles in the China Burma India Theater of World War II as well as the Pacific War. It was during this period of extremely close cooperation that the "Special Relationship" was created and conceptualized.
Millions of American servicemen were based in Britain during World War II, which led to a certain amount of friction with their British counterparts. This animosity was explored in art and film, most particularly A Matter of Life and Death and A Canterbury Tale.
Also at the end of World War II Churchill had sent British Pacific Fleet to help the United States during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 to neutralize the Japanese air power.
As part of their military collaboration throughout the war, scientists and engineers from Britain collaborated with secret American research projects, such as the proximity fuze and the atomic bomb. Indeed both those projects originated in Britain, which lacked the industrial capacity to build them.
Serious tension erupted over American demands that India be given independence, a proposition Churchill vehemently rejected. For years Roosevelt had encouraged Britain's disengagement from India. The American position was based on principled opposition to colonialism, practical concern for the outcome of the war, and the expectation of a large American role in a post-colonial era. However in 1942 when the Congress Party launched a Quit India movement, the British authorities immediately arrested tens of thousands of activists (including Gandhi). Meanwhile India became the main American staging base for aid to China. Churchill threatened to resign if Roosevelt pushed too hard, so Roosevelt backed down.
In the aftermath of the war Britain faced a financial crisis whereas the United States was in the midst of an economic boom. The process of de-colonization accelerated with the independence Britain granted India, Pakistan and Ceylon in 1947. The Labour government, alarmed at the threat of Communism in the Balkans, implored the U.S. to take over the British role in Greece, which led to the Truman Doctrine in 1947, with financial and military aid to Greece and Turkey as Britain withdrew from the region.
The U.S. provided financial aid in the Anglo-American loan of 1946, granting a 50-year loan with a low 2% interest rate starting in 1950. A more permanent solution was the Marshall Plan of 1948–51, which poured $13 billion into western Europe, of which $3.3 billion went to Britain to help modernize its infrastructure and business practices. The aid was a gift and carried requirements that Britain balance its budget, control tariffs, and maintain adequate currency reserves.
The need to form a united front against the Soviet threat impelled the U.S. and Britain to cooperate in helping form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization with their European allies; it is a mutual defense alliance whereby if one country is attacked, then it is seen as an attack on all countries.
The United States began practicing an anti-colonial and anti-communist stance in its foreign policy throughout the Cold War. Military forces from the United States and the United Kingdom were heavily involved in the Korean War, fighting under a United Nations mandate. A withdrawal of military forces occurred when a stalemate was implemented in 1953. When the Suez Crisis erupted in October 1956, the United States feared a wider war after the Soviet Union and the other Warsaw Pact nations threatened to intervene on the Egyptian side. Thus the United States, with support from several European countries, applied sustained econo-financial pressure, to encourage and ultimately force the United Kingdom and France end their invasion of Egypt. British post-war debt was at such an extent that economic sanctions could have meant a devaluing of the currency. this was something the UK government intended to avoid at all costs and when it became clear that the international sanctions were serious, the British and their French allies withdrew their forces back to pre-war positions. The following year saw the resignation of Anthony Eden.
Dwight D. Eisenhower's taking over the White House in January 1953 might have been expected to guarantee a continuance of good United States-United Kingdom relations, if not indeed a period of even closer collaboration. The record of Anglo-American cooperation during Eisenhower's presidency was trouble and checkered, approaching in 1956 a complete breakdown that represented the lowest point in the relation of the two countries since 1920s. During the years of 1953–1961 the British and US relation between Dwight D. Eisenhower and Winston Churchill restored wartime partnership. Winston Churchill became Prime Minister again in 1951, he restored the greatest partnership to his old post. But when Anthony Eden took over from Churchill in 1955 had first hand with experience of Anglo-American collaboration.
Through the US-UK Mutual Defence Agreement signed in 1958, the United States assisted the United Kingdom in their own development of a nuclear arsenal. In April 1963, John F. Kennedy and Harold Macmillan signed the Polaris Sales Agreement to the effect of the United States agreeing to supply the UGM-27 Polaris ballistic missile to the United Kingdom and for use in the Royal Navy's submarine fleet starting in 1968.
The United States gradually became involved in the Vietnam War in the early 1960s, but received no support this time from the United Kingdom. Anti-Americanism due to the Vietnam War and a lack of American support for France and the United Kingdom over the Suez Crisis weighed heavily on the minds of many in Europe. This sentiment extended in the United Kingdom by Harold Wilson's refusal to send British troops to Indochina.
On July 23, 1977, officials from the United Kingdom and the United States renegotiated the previous Bermuda I Agreement, thus signing the Bermuda II Agreement to the effect of only four combined airlines, two from the United Kingdom and two from the United States, being allowed to operate flights from London Heathrow Airport and specified "gateway cities" in the United States. The Bermuda II Agreement was in effect for nearly 30 years until it was eventually replaced by the EU-US Open Skies Agreement, which was signed on April 30, 2007 and entering into effect on March 30, 2008.
Throughout the 1980s, Margaret Thatcher was strongly supportive of Ronald Reagan's unwavering stance towards the Soviet Union. Often described as 'political soulmates' and a high point in the "Special Relationship," both President Reagan and Prime Minister Thatcher met on numerous occasions throughout their political careers, speaking in concert when confronting Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev.
In 1982, the British Government made a request to the United States, which the Americans agreed upon in principle, to sell the Trident II D5 ballistic missile, associated equipment, and related system support for use on four Vanguard class nuclear submarines in the Royal Navy. The Trident II D5 ballistic missile replaced the United Kingdom's previous use of the UGM-27 Polaris ballistic missile, beginning in the mid-1990s.
In the Falklands War, the United States initially tried to mediate between the United Kingdom and Argentina in 1982, but ultimately ended up supporting the United Kingdom's counter-invasion. The United States Defense Department under Caspar Weinberger, supplied the British military with equipment as well as logistical support.
In October 1983, the United States and a coalition of Caribbean nations undertook Operation Urgent Fury, codename for the invasion of the Commonwealth island nation of Grenada. A bloody Marxist-coup had overrun Grenada and neighboring countries in the region asked the United States to intervene militarily, which it did successfully despite having made assurances to a deeply resentful British Government.
On April 15, 1986, the United States Air Force with elements of naval and marine forces launched Operation El Dorado Canyon from RAF Fairford, RAF Upper Heyford, RAF Lakenheath, and RAF Mildenhall. Despite firm opposition from within the Conservative Party, Margaret Thatcher nevertheless gave Ronald Reagan permission to use Royal Air Force stations in the United Kingdom during the bombings of Tripoli and Benghazi in Libya, a counter-attack by the United States in response to Muammar Gaddafi's exportation of state-sponsored terrorism directed towards civilians and American servicemen stationed in West Berlin.
On December 21, 1988, Pan American Worldways' Flight 103 from London Heathrow Airport to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport exploded over the town of Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 169 Americans and 40 Britons onboard. The motive that is generally attributed to the country of Libya can be traced back to a series of military confrontations with the United States Navy that took place in the 1980s in the Gulf of Sidra, the whole of which Libya claimed as its territorial waters. Despite a guilty verdict announced on January 31, 2001 by the Scottish High Court of Justiciary which ruled against Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, the alleged bomber on charges of murder and the conspiracy to commit murder, Libya had never formally admitted carrying out the 1988 bombing over Scotland until 2003.
During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the United States and the United Kingdom throughout the 1980s provided arms to the Mujahideen rebels in Afghanistan until the last troops from the Soviet Union left Afghanistan on February 15, 1989.
When the United States became the world's lone superpower after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, new threats emerged which confronted the United States and its NATO allies. With military build-up beginning in August 1990 and the use of force beginning in January 1991, the United States, followed at a distance by Britain, provided the two largest forces respectively for the coalition army which liberated Kuwait from Saddam Hussein's regime during the Persian Gulf War.
In 1997, the British Labour Party was elected to office for the first time in eighteen years. The new prime minister, Tony Blair, and Bill Clinton both used the expression "Third Way" to describe their centre-left ideologies. In August 1997, the American people expressed solidarity with the British people, sharing in their grief and sense of shock on the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, who perished in a car crash in Paris, France.
Throughout 1998 and 1999, the United States and Britain sent troops to impose peace during the Kosovo War.
2,669 Americans and 67 Britons at the World Trade Center, The Pentagon, and in Shanksville, Pennsylvania were victims of a terrorist plot orchestrated by the terrorist group known as al-Qaeda on September 11, 2001. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, there was an enormous outpouring of sympathy from the United Kingdom for the American people, and Tony Blair was one of George W. Bush's strongest international supporters for bringing al-Qaeda and the Taliban to justice. Indeed Blair became the most articulate spokesman
The United States declared a War on Terror following the attacks. British forces participated in NATO's war in Afghanistan. Blair took the lead (against the opposition of France, Canada, Germany, China, and Russia) in advocating the American-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Again Britain was second only to the U.S. in sending forces to Iraq. Both sides wound down after 2009, and withdrew their last troops in 2011. President Bush and Prime Minister Blair provided sustained mutual political and diplomatic support and won votes in Congress and parliament against their critics at home.
The July 7, 2005 London bombings emphasized the difference in the nature of the terrorist threat to both nations. The United States concentrated primarily on global enemies, like the al-Qaeda network and other Islamic extremists from the Middle East. The London bombings were carried out by homegrown extremist Muslims, and it emphasized the United Kingdom's threat from the radicalization of its own people.
By 2007, support amongst the British public for the Iraq war had plummeted. Despite Tony Blair's historically low approval ratings with the British people, mainly due to allegations of faulty government intelligence of Iraq possessing weapons of mass destruction, his unapologetic and unwavering stance for the British alliance with the United States can be summed up in his own words. He said, "We should remain the closest ally of the US... not because they are powerful, but because we share their values." The alliance between George W. Bush and Tony Blair seriously damaged the prime minister's standing in the eyes of many British citizens. Tony Blair argued it is in the United Kingdom's interest to "protect and strengthen the bond" with the United States regardless of who is in the White House. However, a perception of one-sided compromising personal and political closeness led to serious discussion of the term "Poodle-ism" in the British media, to describe the "Special Relationship" of the British Government and Prime Minister with the White House and President.
All British servicemen were withdrawn with the exception of 400 who remained in Iraq until July 31, 2009.
On June 11, 2009, the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda accepted four Chinese Uighurs from the United States' detainment facility known as Guantanamo Bay detention camp located on the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba. At the request of the United States Government, Bermudan officials agreed to host Khaleel Mamut, Hozaifa Parhat, Salahidin Abdulahat, and Abdullah Abdulqadirakhun as guest workers in Bermuda who seven years ago, were all captured by Pakistani bounty hunters during the United States-led invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001. This decision agreed upon by American and Bermudan officials drew considerable consternation and contempt by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office as it was viewed by British officials in London that they should have been consulted on whether or not the decision to take in four Chinese Uighurs was a security and foreign issue of which the Bermudian government does not have delegated responsibility over.
On August 20, 2009, Scottish Justice Secretary Kenny MacAskill publicly announced during a media conference that Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, the only person convicted of the terrorist plot which killed 169 Americans and 40 Britons on Pan American Worldways' Flight 103 over the town of Lockerbie, Scotland on December 21, 1988, was to be released from a Scottish jail on compassionate grounds based on medical advice verifying that Abdelbaset al-Megrahi has terminal cancer and an estimated three months left to live. After media reports showed Abdelbaset al-Megrahi at Tripoli International Airport receiving a hero's welcome on Libyan soil, fury and mounting anger grew in the United States over the decision itself to release Abdelbaset al-Megrahi under the framework of Scottish law for a crime he was found guilty of committing on January 31, 2001 by the Scottish High Court of Justiciary and one in which his sentence carried out was being revoked. The judges recommended a minimum of 20 years "in view of the horrendous nature of this crime." From the American viewpoint, the decision to release Abdelbaset al-Megrahi on compassionate grounds was seen as uncompassionate and insensitive to the memory of the victims of the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton said that the decision made her "deeply disappointed." President Barack Obama said that the decision was "highly objectionable" while FBI Director Robert Mueller had even more strong words in an open letter written to Kenny MacAskill in which he said the decision to release Abdelbaset al-Megrahi "makes a mockery of the rule of law."
Prime Minister Gordon Brown and several officials of the British Government declined to say whether or not they supported the release of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi as they repeatedly stressed that the decision was a devolved matter and under the sole authority of the Scottish Government. Nevertheless, serious questions arose as to whether or not a lucrative trade agreement or oil deal was made between Libya and the United Kingdom, contingent upon the release of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, as claimed by Saif Gaddafi, the son of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. After the release, Colonel Gaddafi stated, "And I say to my friend Brown, the prime minister of Britain 〔ママ〕, his government, the Queen of Britain, Elizabeth, and Prince Andrew, who all contributed to encouraging the Scottish government to take this historic and courageous decision, despite the obstacles." In response to all accusations made in the media, Lord Mandelson, the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills made a rebuttal by saying, "It's not only completely wrong to make such a suggestion, it's also quite offensive."
Surrounding the controversy of releasing Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and the allegations of a trade deal between Libya and the United Kingdom, a backlash of angry protesters in the United States called for a boycott of Scotland. A web site in the form of an online petition was launched soon thereafter with a list of e-mail addresses of Scottish and British politicians, contact details of Scottish newspapers, and a list of Scottish products and companies for the American people to economically boycott. The online web petition claimed that a boycott of Scotland was the "only way to send a clear and direct message" of American contempt. Grassroots campaigns also took hold on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook, while there were calls to have Scotch whisky renamed as 'Freedom Liquor.'
In the aftermath of the release of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, several commentators suggested that British-American relations have been damaged due to the actions of the Scottish Government. Others in the media as well as in government circles have even questioned whether or not the "Special Relationship" developed between the United Kingdom and the United States during World War II still exists. David Rivkin, a former official of the United States Department of Justice said, "This will damage US relations with Britain for years to come." However, Louis Susman, the United States Ambassador to the Court of St. James's said that although the decision made by Scotland to release Abdelbaset al-Megrahi on the grounds of compassion was seen by the United States as extremely regrettable, relations with the United Kingdom would remain fully intact and strong. Despite these assurances made by the United States, sceptics such as Susan Stewart, a former diplomat of Scottish Affairs contended that Scotland's standing and negative image in the United States resulted in a setback of Scottish-American relations where only a 'diplomatic charm offensive' on the behalf of Scotland could repair the damage already done.
Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill[編集]
In April 2010, the explosion, sinking and resultant oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig led to diplomatic friction and populist Anti-British sentiment, even though the Rig was owned and operated by the Swiss company Transocean. Commentators referred to "British Petroleum" even though the company had been known as "BP" since 1998. UK politicians expressed concerns about Anti-British rhetoric in the USA. BP's CEO Tony Hayward was called "the most hated man in America". Conversely, the widespread public demonisation of BP and the effects on the company and its image, coupled with Obama's statements with regard to BP caused a degree of Anti-American sentiment in the UK. This was particularly evidenced by the comments of the Business Secretary Vince Cable, who said that "It's clear that some of the rhetoric in the US is extreme and unhelpful", for reasons of British pension funds, loss of revenues for the exchequer and the adverse effect such the rhetoric was having on the share price of one of the UK's largest companies. The meeting between Barack Obama and David Cameron in July somewhat helped strained diplomatic relations, and President Obama stated that there lies a "truly special relations" between the two countries. The degree to which Anti-British or Anti-American hostilities continue to exist, remains to be seen.
Present British policy is that the relationship with the United States represents the United Kingdom's "most important bilateral relationship" in the world. United States Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton paid tribute to the relationship in February 2009 by saying, "it stands the test of time".
On March 3, 2009, Gordon Brown made his first visit to the Obama White House. During his visit, he presented the president a gift in the form of a pen holder carved from HMS Gannet, which served anti-slavery missions off the coast of Africa. Barack Obama’s gift to the prime minister was a box of 25 DVDs with movies including Star Wars and E.T. The wife of the prime minister, Sarah Brown, gave the Obama daughters, Sasha and Malia, two dresses from British clothing retailer Topshop, and a few unpublished books that have not reached the United States. Michelle Obama gave the prime minister's sons two Marine One helicopter toys. During this visit to the United States, Gordon Brown made an address to a joint session of the United States Congress, a privilege rarely accorded to foreign heads of government.
In March 2009, a Gallup poll of Americans showed 36% identified the United Kingdom as their country's "most valuable ally", followed by Canada, Japan, Israel, and Germany rounding out the top five. The poll also indicated that 89% of Americans view the United Kingdom favorably, second only to Canada with 90%. According to the Pew Research Center, a global survey conducted in July 2009 revealed that 70% of Britons who responded had a favorable view of the United States.
Former British Secretary of State for Defence Liam Fox criticized minor American defense adjustments and announced that British military spending will be cut by a level expected to be 10 to 20 percent.
In February 2011, The Daily Telegraph, based on evidence from Wikileaks, reported that the United States had tendered sensitive information about the British Trident nuclear arsenal (whose missile delivery systems are manufactured and maintained in the United States) to the Russian Federation as part of a deal to encourage Russia to ratify the New START Treaty. Professor Malcolm Chalmers of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies speculated that serial numbers could undermine Britain's non-verification policy by providing Russia "with another data point to gauge the size of the British arsenal".
On May 25, 2011, during his official visit to the UK, President Barack Obama reaffirmed the relationship between the United Kingdom and the United States of America in an address to Parliament at Westminster Hall. Amongst other points, Obama stated: "I've come here today to reaffirm one of the oldest; one of the strongest alliances the World has ever known. It's long been said that the United States and The United Kingdom share a special relationship."
過去数十年間に、のべ2人のイギリスの君主と3人のアメリカ合衆国大統領が相互に儀礼的、公的な訪問を行っている。エリザベス2世女王はその生涯を通して、これまでに11人の大統領（トルーマン、アイゼンハワー、ケネディ、ニクソン、フォード、カーター、レーガン、ブッシュ・シニア、クリントン、ブッシュ・ジュニア、オバマ) と面会した。唯一の例外はリンドン・B・ジョンソンである。このほか、元大統領のハーバート・フーヴァー (任期: 1929年–1933年) と1957年に面会している。
|1976年7月6日-9日||女王エリザベス2世およびフィリップ王配||フィラデルフィア、ワシントンD.C.、ニューヨーク市、シャーロッツヴィル (バージニア州)、ニューポートおよびプロヴィデンス (ロードアイランド州)、ボストン||ブリタニア号にてワシントンD.C.を公式訪問し、アメリカ独立200周年祝賀行事と連動してアメリカ東海岸を巡幸。|
|1983年2月26日-3月7日||女王エリザベス2世およびフィリップ王配||サンディエゴ、パームスプリングス、ロサンゼルス、サンタバーバラ、サンフランシスコ、ヨセミテ国立公園 (カリフォルニア州)、シアトル (ワシントン州)||ブリタニア号にてアメリカ合衆国を公式訪問し、アメリカ西海岸を巡幸。また、サンタ・イネス・マウンテンズにあるロナルド・レーガン大統領の保養地であるランチョ・デル・シエロを私的に訪問。|
|1991年5月14日-17日||女王エリザベス2世およびフィリップ王配||ワシントンD.C.、ボルティモア (メリーランド州)、マイアミおよびタンパ (フロリダ州)、オースティン、サンアントニオおよびヒューストン (テキサス州)、レキシントン (ケンタッキー州)||ワシントンD.C.を公式訪問し、連邦議会の合同会議にて演説、ケンタッキー州を私的に訪問、合衆国南部を巡幸。|
|2007年5月3日-8日||女王エリザベス2世およびフィリップ王配||リッチモンド、ジェームズタウンおよびウィリアムズバーグ (バージニア州)、ルイビル (ケンタッキー州)、グリーンベルト (メリーランド州)、ワシントンD.C.||ワシントンD.C.を公式訪問し、バージニア州議会にて演説、ジェームズタウン開拓400周年記念式典に出席、NASAのゴダード宇宙飛行センター、ナショナル・モールの第二次世界大戦記念碑を巡幸、またケンタッキー州を私的に訪問し、第133回ケンタッキーダービーを観戦。|
Strategic Alliance Cyber Crime Working Group (戦略的提携サイバー犯罪ワーキンググループ) は、アメリカを筆頭として、オーストラリア、カナダ、ニュージーランド、イギリスが主導するもので、全地球規模の犯罪事案、特に組織犯罪を専門に取り組むこれらの国家間の公式なパートナーシップ協定である。この協同体は、3大陸からの5か国が団結して情報を共有し、ツールおよび最善の対処法を交換することによる相乗効果でサイバー犯罪と対峙しつつ、各国の法規を強化し、一致させる、というものである。
イギリスとアメリカの双方のテレビ番組は類似しており、相手国の放送網を通して直接放送されたり、放映権を得た国内のメディアが相手国の番組を自国向けに再編集して放送されたりしている。アメリカ国内市場向けに再構成された近年のイギリスの人気テレビ番組は、『The Office』、『フー・ウォンツ・トゥ・ビー・ア・ミリオネア』（日本版はクイズ$ミリオネアの番組名で知られる）、『Strictly Come Dancing』(ダンシング・ウィズ・ザ・スターズ) 、『トップ・ギア』、『ポップアイドル』(アメリカン・アイドル) 、『Xファクター』である。一方、イギリス国内市場向けに再構成された近年のアメリカの人気テレビ番組は、『ジ・アプレンティス』、『Deal or No Deal』である。現在イギリスでも人気を博しているアメリカの人気テレビ番組は『ザ・シンプソンズ』、『モダン・ファミリー』、『サウスパーク』、『スクラブス』、『ファミリー・ガイ』、『フレンズ』、『CSI:科学捜査班』シリーズである。
BBCはアメリカ国内でBBCアメリカとBBCワールドの2つのネットワークを運用している。アメリカの放送網PBSはBBCと共同して『空飛ぶモンティ・パイソン』、『Keeping Up Appearances』、『ドクター・フー』、『Nova』、『Masterpiece』等のイギリスのテレビ番組をアメリカ国内向けに再放送している。BBCもよくアメリカの放送網HBOと共同し、『ローマ』、『John Adams』、『バンド・オブ・ブラザース』、『The Gathering Storm』等、近年のアメリカのミニ番組をイギリス国内で再放送している。さらに、アメリカのディスカバリーチャンネルはBBC等との共同制作番組として『プラネットアース』と『The Blue Planet』（アメリカでは後にThe Blue Planet: Seas of Life の表題で知られる）をアメリカ国内で放送した。アメリカの政治専門チャンネルC-SPANは毎週日曜日にイギリスの首相質問の模様を放送している。
- Timeline of British diplomatic history
- Timeline of United States diplomatic history
- Transatlantic relations
- ^ Kiran Chetry, T.J. Holmes, Christine Romans, Christiane Amanpour, Suzanne Malveaux, Nic Robertson, 'President Obama/Prime Minister Brown G-20 Summit Press Conference' (1 April 2009), CNN: American Morning, CNLM.
- ^ Panel I of A Hearing of the senate Foreign Relations Committee (Part 4) (21 January 2010), Federal News Service, FEDNWS.
- ^ a b Giles, Chris (2007年7月27日). “/ Home UK / UK – Ties that bind: Bush, Brown and a different relationship”. Financial Times. 2012年3月25日閲覧。
- ^ Alex Spillius, 'Special relationship Britain and America share fundamental values, Clinton tells Miliband', The Daily Telegraph (4 February 2009), p. 12.
- ^ David Williamson, "U.S. envoy pays tribute to Welsh Guards' courage", The Western Mail (26 November 2009), p. 16.
- ^ Document with full texts of the maritime treaties and maps
- ^ Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the United States of America on the Delimitation in the Caribbean of a Maritime Boundary between Puerto Rico/US Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands 5 November 1993
- ^ “Figures”. 2012年10月5日閲覧。
- ^ Religious Affiliation Pew report
- ^ http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/defense.pdf
- ^ Ember et al 2004, p. 49.
- ^ a b c Matthew Lange, James Mahoney, and Matthias vom Hau, "Colonialism and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Spanish and British Colonies", The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 111, No. 5 (March 2006), pp. 1412–1462.
- ^ A useful survey is Francis D. Cogliano, Revolutionary America, 1763–1815: A Political History (2008) excerpt and text search; the author is an American based at a British university.
- ^ Jonathan R. Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (1987); H. M. Scott, British Foreign Policy in the Age of the American Revolution (Oxford University Press, 1990).
- ^ Perkins (1955)
- ^ Marshall Smelser, The Democratic Republic, 1801–1815 (1968).
- ^ Perkins p. vii
- ^ Bradford Perkins, The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795–1805 (1955) p. 1.
- ^ Joseph Ellis, Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (2000) pp. 136–7.
- ^ Donald R Hickey, The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict (1989), pp. 11, 107–110.
- ^ Francis M. Carroll (2001). A Good and Wise Measure: The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, 1783-1842. U. of Toronto Press. p. 24 .
- ^ Norman K. Risjord, "1812: Conservatives, War Hawks, and the Nation's Honor," William and Mary Quarterly (1961) 18#2 pp 196–210 in JSTOR
- ^ H.W. Brands (2006). Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. Random House Digital. p. 163 .
- ^ J.C.A. Stagg, "James Madison and the Coercion of Great Britain: Canada, the West Indies, and the War of 1812," William and Mary Quarterly (1981) 38#1 pp. 3–34 in JSTOR
- ^ Kate Caffrey: The Lion and the Union, (1978), p. 270.
- ^ Ralph W. Hidy and Muriel E. Hidy, "Anglo-American Merchant Bankers and the Railroads of the Old Northwest, 1848–1860," Business History Review (1960) 34#2 pp. 150–169 in JSTOR
- ^ Scott Kaufman, and John A. Soares, "'Sagacious Beyond Praise'? Winfield Scott and Anglo-American-Canadian Border Diplomacy, 1837–1860," Diplomatic History, (2006) 30#1 pp p57-82
- ^ Howard Jones, "Anglophobia and the Aroostook War," New England Quarterly (1975) 48#4 pp. 519–539 in JSTOR
- ^ David M. Pletcher, The Diplomacy of Annexation: Texas, Oregon, and the Mexican War (1973).
- ^ Amanda Foreman, A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War (2012)
- ^ Howard Jones, Union in Peril: The Crisis over British Intervention in the Civil War (1992)
- ^ Charles Francis Adams, "The Trent Affair," American Historical Review (1912) 17#3 pp. 540–562 in JSTOR
- ^ Adams (1925)
- ^ Howard Jones (2002). Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: The Union and Slavery in the Diplomacy of the Civil War. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 83–84 .
- ^ Nelson M. Blake, "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy," American Historical Review (1942) 47#2 pp. 259–277 IN jstor
- ^ Alan Nevins, Grover Cleveland (1932) p 647
- ^ Nevins, 550, 647–648
- ^ R. A. Humphreys, "Anglo-American Rivalries and the Venezuela Crisis of 1895," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (1967) 17:131–164 in JSTOR
- ^ David G. Haglund, and Tudor Onea, "Victory without Triumph: Theodore Roosevelt, Honour, and the Alaska Panhandle Boundary Dispute," Diplomacy and Statecraft (March 2008) 19#1 pp 20–41.
- ^ William C. Reuter, "The Anatomy of Political Anglophobia in the United States, 1865-1900," Mid America (1979) 61#2 pp 117-132.
- ^ John Dumbrell (2009). America's Special Relationships: Allies and Clients. Taylor & Francis. p. 31 .
- ^ Henry J. Hendrix, Theodore Roosevelt's Naval Diplomacy: The U.S. Navy and the Birth of the American Century (2009)
- ^ Mark Albertson, They'll Have to Follow You!: The Triumph of the Great White Fleet (2008) excerpt and text search
- ^ May, Ernest R. The World War and American Isolation, 1914–1917 (1959)
- ^ Ronald Spector, "'You're Not Going to Send Soldiers Over There Are You!': The American Search for an Alternative to the Western Front 1916–1917," Military Affairs (1972) 36#1 pp. 1–4 in JSTOR
- ^ J Ellis & M Cox, The WW1 Databook (Aurum press 2001) p. 245
- ^ Allen (1954)
- ^ Carolyn J. Kitching, Britain and the Problem of International Disarmament, 1919-1934 Rutledge, 1999 online
- ^ A.J. P. Taylor, English History, 1914-1945 (1965) pp 202-3, 335
- ^ Jeannette P. Nichols, "Roosevelt's Monetary Diplomacy in 1933," American Historical Review, (1951) 56#2 pp. 295-317 in JSTOR
- ^ Frederick W. Jones, ed. The Economic Almanac 1956 (1956) p 486
- ^ Hollowell; Twentieth-Century Anglo-American Relations (2001)
- ^ Leo T. Crowley, "Lend Lease" in Walter Yust, ed. 10 Eventful Years (1947)1:520, 2, pp. 858–860.
- ^ Charmley. Churchill's Grand Alliance: The Anglo-American Special Relationship 1940–57 (1996); Hollowell; Twentieth-Century Anglo-American Relations (2001)
- ^ John Reynolds, Rich Relations: The American Occupation of Britain, 1942–45 (Random House, 1995)
- ^ James W. Brennan, "The Proximity Fuze: Whose Brainchild?," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (1968) 94#9 pp 72–78.
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- History of United Kingdom - United States relations （英語） - アメリカ合衆国国務省による英米関係史
- Atlantic Archive: UK-US Relations in an Age of Global War 1939–1945
- John Bull and Uncle Sam: Four Centuries of British American Relations
- An analysis of the Special Relationship from a British perspective. From the Second World War to the latest global problems facing the United States.
- Lecture: Anti-Americanism and American Exceptionalism
- Goldwin Smith, "The Hatred of England," (1890) essay by Canadian scholar
- British Embassy in the United States of America
- Embassy of the United States of America in the United Kingdom