アメリカ合衆国の国際関係

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アメリカ合衆国と世界の国々との外交関係
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アメリカ合衆国の国際関係(あめりかがっしゅうこくのこくさいかんけい)では、アメリカ合衆国と諸国家との関係について述べる。

アメリカ合衆国(以下、便宜上「米国」の表記も同義の語として用いる)は多くの国々と正式に国交を樹立している。

太平洋地域[編集]

国交樹立年 備考
オーストラリアの旗 オーストラリア 1940[1] en:Australia–United States relations」を参照。

オーストラリアは米国の親密な同盟国であり[2]、慣習的にはイギリス連邦加盟国である。イギリスのアジアにおける影響力が弱まると、1942年以降、オーストラリアは米国との関係を強め、現在の信頼に足るアメリカの同盟国としての地位を築き上げた。政治レベルでは、ANZUS(太平洋安全保障条約)とAUSFTA(米豪自由貿易協定)により米豪関係は確固たるものとなっている。[要出典]

フィジーの旗 フィジー 1971[3] en:Fiji–United States relations」を参照。

Relations are currently poor, due to the United States' opposition to Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup.[4]

キリバスの旗 キリバス 1980[5] See en:Kiribati–United States relations

Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The U.S. Peace Corps has maintained a program in Kiribati since 1967. Currently there are about 40 Peace Corps volunteers serving in the country.

マーシャル諸島の旗 マーシャル諸島 1986 See en:Marshall Islands–United States relations

The Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation in "free association" with the United States. The Marshall Islands and the United States maintain excellent relations. After more than a decade of negotiation, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed the Compact of Free Association on June 25, 1983. The Compact gives the U.S. full authority and responsibility over defense of the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands and the United States both lay claim to Wake Island. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the Marshall Islands is the same one that binds the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia.

ミクロネシア連邦の旗 ミクロネシア連邦 1986[6] See en:Federated States of Micronesia–United States relations

Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 U.S. federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. The United States and the FSM share very strong relations. Under the Amended Compact, the U.S. has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the FSM is the same one that binds the United States and the Marshall Islands.

ナウルの旗 ナウル 1976[7] See en:Nauru–United States relations
ニュージーランドの旗 ニュージーランド 1942[8] See en:New Zealand–United States relations

Relations have been complex. The United States has historically assisted New Zealand in times of turmoil; for instance, during World War II and with the 2010 Canterbury earthquake. New Zealand has reciprocated; for example, by participating in the Vietnam War. However, the United States suspended its mutual defense obligations to New Zealand because of that state's non-nuclear policies.

パラオの旗 パラオ 1996[9] See en:Palau–United States relations

On October 1, 1994, after five decades of US administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.

パプアニューギニアの旗 パプアニューギニア 1975[10] See en:Papua New Guinea–United States relations
サモアの旗 サモア 1962[11] See en:Samoa–United States relations
ソロモン諸島の旗 ソロモン諸島 1978[12] See en:Solomon Islands–United States relations
トンガの旗 トンガ 1886; 1972[13] See en:Tonga–United States relations
ツバルの旗 ツバル 1978[14] See en:Tuvalu–United States relations

Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.

バヌアツの旗 バヌアツ 1986[15] See en:United States–Vanuatu relations

The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.[16] Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in US aid to Vanuatu.

南北アメリカ[編集]

国交樹立年 備考
アルゼンチンの旗 アルゼンチン 1823[17] See en:Argentina–United States relations

The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counterterrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the U.S.), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

ボリビアの旗 ボリビア 1849[18] See en:Bolivia–United States relations

Although President Evo Morales has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Bolivia have a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the U.S. remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. Government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

ブラジルの旗 ブラジル 1824[19] See en:Brazil–United States relations

The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil, doing so in 1808. Brazil-United States relations has a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues[20]. The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[21] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States[22].

カナダの旗 カナダ 1926[23] 米加関係」を参照。

カナダとアメリカ合衆国の間の関係は共にイギリス植民地であった頃より続く2世紀間に及ぶ歴史がある。アメリカ合衆国建国初期には紛争があったものの、現代では最も成功した国際関係の一つにまで発展した。両国の関係の中で最も深刻な不和が生じたのは1812年に始まった米英戦争のときであり、アメリカ合衆国がイギリス領北アメリカに侵略し、イギリス・カナダ軍からの逆襲を受けた。この戦争後国境は非武装化され、小規模の紛争は別として平和が保たれた。2つの世界大戦で軍事協力が始まり、冷戦期間も続いたが、カナダ人は特定の米国の政策について疑念を持っていた。両国間の大量の貿易や移民によって密接な結びつきが生まれたが、人口や経済力ではアメリカ合衆国の10分の1であるカナダは常にその隣国に圧倒される恐れを抱いていた。[24]

キューバの旗 キューバ 1902[25] See en:Cuba–United States relations

Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations deteriorated substantially, and have since been marked by tension and confrontation. The United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Cuba and has maintained an embargo which makes it illegal for U.S. corporations to do business with Cuba. U.S. diplomatic representation in Cuba is handled by the United States Interests Section in Havana and a similar Cuban Interests Section remains in Washington, D.C.; both are officially part of the respective embassies of Switzerland. The United States has stated it will continue the embargo so long as the Cuban regime continues to refuse to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights[26], hoping to see democratization that took place in Eastern Europe.

チリの旗 チリ 1824[27] See en:Chile–United States relations

Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, The United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics. Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 U.S.A/Chile Free Trade Agreement.

コロンビアの旗 コロンビア 1822[28] See en:Colombia–United States relations

Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries[要出典] to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current US policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that US influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia.[29] Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the U.S. has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism.[30]

コスタリカの旗 コスタリカ 1851[31] See en:Costa Rica–United States relations
ドミニカ共和国の旗 ドミニカ共和国 1866[32] See en:Dominican Republic–United States relations
エクアドルの旗 エクアドル 1832[33] See en:Ecuador–United States relations
エルサルバドルの旗 エルサルバドル 1824; 1849[34] See en:El Salvador–United States relations
グアテマラの旗 グアテマラ 1824; 1844[35] See en:Guatemala–United States relations
ハイチの旗 ハイチ 1862[36] See en:Haiti–United States relations
ホンジュラスの旗 ホンジュラス 1824; 1853[37] See en:Honduras–United States relations
メキシコの旗 メキシコ 1822[38] See en:Mexico–United States relations
ニカラグアの旗 ニカラグア 1824; 1849[39] See en:Nicaragua–United States relations
パナマの旗 パナマ 1903[40] See en:Panama–United States relations
パラグアイの旗 パラグアイ 1852[41] See en:Paraguay–United States relations
ペルーの旗 ペルー 1826[42] See en:Peru–United States relations
ウルグアイの旗 ウルグアイ 1836[43] See en:United States–Uruguay relations

In 2002, Uruguay and the U.S. created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the U.S. signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 U.S.-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market U.S. goods and services.

ベネズエラの旗 ベネズエラ 1835[44] See en:United States–Venezuela relations

After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States and particularly after the Venezuelan failed coup attempt in 2002 against Chavez, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the US. Relations showed signs of improvement in 2009 with the election of the new US President Barack Obama, including the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in June 2009.

カリブ地域[編集]

The term "Caribbean" is used loosely to refer to countries in or near the Caribbean Sea other than those included under "Latin America".

国交樹立年 備考
アンティグア・バーブーダの旗 アンティグア・バーブーダ 1981[45] See en:United States-Antigua and Barbuda relations
アルバの旗 アルバ See en:Aruba–United States relations
バハマの旗 バハマ 1973[46] See en:Bahamas–United States relations
バルバドスの旗 バルバドス 1966[47] See en:Barbados–United States relations
ベリーズの旗 ベリーズ 1981[48] See en:United States-Belize relations
バミューダ諸島の旗 バミューダ諸島 See en:Bermuda–United States relations
ケイマン諸島の旗 ケイマン諸島 See en:Cayman Islands–United States relations
ドミニカ国の旗 ドミニカ国 1978[49] See en:Dominica–United States relations
グレナダの旗 グレナダ 1974[50] See en:Grenada–United States relations
ガイアナの旗 ガイアナ 1966[51] See en:Guyana–United States relations
ジャマイカの旗 ジャマイカ 1962[52] See en:Jamaica–United States relations
オランダ領アンティルの旗 オランダ領アンティル See en:Netherlands Antilles–United States relations
セントクリストファー・ネイビスの旗 セントクリストファー・ネイビス 1983[53] See en:Saint Kitts and Nevis–United States relations
セントルシアの旗 セントルシア 1979[54] See en:Saint Lucia–United States relations
セントビンセント・グレナディーンの旗 セントビンセント・グレナディーン 1981[55] See en:Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–United States relations
スリナムの旗 スリナム 1975[56] See en:Suriname–United States relations
トリニダード・トバゴの旗 トリニダード・トバゴ 1962[57] See en:Trinidad and Tobago–United States relations

東アジア[編集]

国または地域 国交樹立年 備考
中華人民共和国の旗 中国 1979[58] 米中関係」を参照。

アメリカ合衆国は中華人民共和国を中国の唯一の合法的政府として承認している。

香港の旗 香港 1843[要出典] en:Hong Kong–United States relations」を参照。
日本の旗 日本 1854[59] 日米関係」を参照。

1945年以降、日米関係は大きく発展した。

マカオの旗 マカオ 1887[要出典] en:Macau–United States relations」を参照。
モンゴルの旗 モンゴル 1987[60] en:Mongolia–United States relations」を参照。
朝鮮民主主義人民共和国の旗 北朝鮮 N/A (国交は存在せず) 米朝関係」を参照。
アメリカ合衆国は北朝鮮政府を承認していない。数十年来、核兵器を巡る交渉が難航している。
韓国の旗 韓国 1882[61]; 1949[62] 米韓関係」を参照。
中華民国の旗 中華民国台湾 1844-1979 en:Republic of China–United States relations」を参照。
1979年以降は、一つの中国政策に従って、正式には中華民国(台湾)を国家として承認していない。

東南アジア[編集]

国交樹立年 備考
ブルネイの旗 ブルネイ 1984[63] See en:Brunei–United States relations

The U.S. welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the U.S. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.

ビルマの旗 ビルマ 1948[64] See en:Burma–United States relations

The political relationship between the United States and Burma worsened after the 1988 military coup d'état and violent suppression of pro-democracy demonstrations. Subsequent repression, including the brutal crackdown on peaceful protestorss in September 2007, further strained the relationship.

カンボジアの旗 カンボジア 1950[65] See en:Cambodia–United States relations
東ティモールの旗 東ティモール 2002[66] See en:East Timor–United States relations
インドネシアの旗 インドネシア 1949[67] See en:Indonesia–United States relations
ラオスの旗 ラオス 1950[68] See en:Laos–United States relations
マレーシアの旗 マレーシア 1957[69] See en:Malaysia–United States relations
フィリピンの旗 フィリピン 1946[70] See en:Philippines–United States relations

The Philippines and the United States have a long standing alliance. The Philippines was also a US colony from 1902-1946. The Philippines is also the oldest and one of the closest US allies in Asia[71].

The US and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Islamic insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.

The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with 100,000+ US citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 2 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The US is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.

The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan Exercises that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The US military also conduct humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two Major US allies in South East Asia.

シンガポールの旗 シンガポール 1965[72] See en:Singapore–United States relations
タイ王国の旗 タイ 1833[73] See en:Thailand–United States relations
ベトナムの旗 ベトナム 1995[74] See en:United States–Vietnam relations

After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco.

南・中央アジア[編集]

国交樹立年 備考
アフガニスタンの旗 アフガニスタン 1935[75] See en:Afghanistan–United States relations
バングラデシュの旗 バングラデシュ 1972[76] See en:Bangladesh–United States relations

Today the relationship between the two countries are based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.

ブータンの旗 ブータン N/A (Informal relations)[77] See Bhutan – United States relations

The U.S. has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 alleged Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven U.N. refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.

インドの旗 インド 1947[78] See en:India–United States relations
カザフスタンの旗 カザフスタン 1991[79] See en:Kazakhstan–United States relations
キルギスの旗 キルギス 1991[80] See en:Kyrgyzstan–United States relations
モルディブの旗 モルディブ 1965[81] See en:Maldives–United States relations
ネパールの旗 ネパール 1947[82] See en:Nepal–United States relations
パキスタンの旗 パキスタン 1947[83] See en:Pakistan–United States relations
スリランカの旗 スリランカ 1947[84] See en:Sri Lanka–United States relations
タジキスタンの旗 タジキスタン 1991[85] See en:Tajikistan–United States relations
トルクメニスタンの旗 トルクメニスタン 1991[86] See en:Turkmenistan–United States relations

The U.S. Embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.

ウズベキスタンの旗 ウズベキスタン 1991[87] See en:United States–Uzbekistan relations

Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to U.S., regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.

欧州[編集]

国交樹立年 備考
アルバニアの旗 アルバニア 1922[88] See en:lbania–United States relations
アンドラの旗 アンドラ 1995[89] See en:Foreign relations of Andorra#Relations with the United States
アルメニアの旗 アルメニア 1920; 1991[90] See en:US–Armenian relations
オーストリアの旗 オーストリア 1921[91] See en:Austria–United States relations
アゼルバイジャンの旗 アゼルバイジャン 1991[92] See en:Azerbaijan–United States relations
ベラルーシの旗 ベラルーシ 1991[93] See en:Belarus–United States relations
The United States has tense relations with Belarus relating to Belarus' human rights record and election irregularities.
ベルギーの旗 ベルギー 1832[94] See en:Belgium–United States relations
ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの旗 ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ 1992[95] See en:Bosnia and Herzegovina–United States relations
ブルガリアの旗 ブルガリア 1903[96] See en:Bulgaria–United States relations
クロアチアの旗 クロアチア 1992[97] See en:United States-Croatia relations
キプロスの旗 キプロス 1960[98] See en:Cyprus–United States relations
チェコの旗 チェコ 1993[99] See en:Czech Republic–United States relations
デンマークの旗 デンマーク 1801[100] See en:Denmark–United States relations
エストニアの旗 エストニア 1922; 1991[101] See en:Estonia–United States relations
欧州連合の旗 欧州連合 See en:United States–European Union relations
フィンランドの旗 フィンランド 1919[102] See en:Finland–United States relations
フランスの旗 フランス 1778[103] See en:France–United States relations
グルジアの旗 グルジア 1992[104] See en:Georgia–United States relations
ドイツの旗 ドイツ 1797[105] See en:Germany–United States relations
ギリシャの旗 ギリシャ 1868[106] See en:Greece–United States relations
バチカンの旗 バチカン 1984[107] See en:Holy See–United States relations
ハンガリーの旗 ハンガリー 1921[108] See en:Hungary–United States relations
アイスランドの旗 アイスランド 1944[109] See en:Iceland–United States relations
アイルランドの旗 アイルランド 1924[110] See en:Ireland–United States relations
イタリアの旗 イタリア 1861[111] See en:Italy–United States relations
コソボの旗 コソボ 2008[112] See en:Kosovo–United States relations
The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Kosovo.
ラトビアの旗 ラトビア 1922; 1991[113] See en:Latvia–United States relations
リヒテンシュタインの旗 リヒテンシュタイン 1997[114] See en:Liechtenstein–United States relations
リトアニアの旗 リトアニア 1922; 1991[115] See en:Lithuania–United States relations
ルクセンブルクの旗 ルクセンブルク 1903[116] See en:Luxembourg–United States relations
マルタの旗 マルタ 1964[117] See en:Malta–United States relations
モルドバの旗 モルドバ 1992[118] See en:Moldova–United States relations
モナコの旗 モナコ 2006[119] See en:Monaco–United States relations
モンテネグロの旗 モンテネグロ 1905; 2006[120] See en:Montenegro–United States relations
オランダの旗 オランダ 1781[121] See en:Netherlands–United States relations
The Dutch colony of Sint Eustatius was the first foreign state to recognize the independence of the United States, doing so in 1776. However, the Dutch Republic neither authorized the recognition nor ratified it, therefore Morocco remains the first sovereign nation to officially recognize the United States.
ノルウェーの旗 ノルウェー 1905[122] See en:Norway–United States relations
ポーランドの旗 ポーランド 1919[123] See en:Poland–United States relations
ポルトガルの旗 ポルトガル 1791[124] See en:Portugal–United States relations
マケドニア共和国の旗 マケドニア共和国 1995[125] See en:Republic of Macedonia–United States relations
ルーマニアの旗 ルーマニア 1880[126] See en:Romania–United States relations
ロシアの旗 ロシア 1809; 1991[127] See en:Russia–United States relations
サンマリノの旗 サンマリノ 1861[128] See en:San Marino–United States relations
スペインの旗 スペイン 1783[129] See en:Spain–United States relations
セルビアの旗 セルビア 2000[130] See en:Serbia–United States relations
スロバキアの旗 スロバキア 1993[131] See en:Slovakia–United States relations
スロベニアの旗 スロベニア 1992[132] See en:Slovenia–United States relations
スウェーデンの旗 スウェーデン 1818[133] See en:Sweden–United States relations
スイスの旗 スイス 1853[134] See en:Switzerland–United States relations
トルコの旗 トルコ 1831[135] See en:Turkey–United States relations
ウクライナの旗 ウクライナ 1991[136] See en:Ukraine–United States relations
イギリスの旗 イギリス 1783[137] 英米関係」を参照。

北アフリカ・中東[編集]

国交樹立年 備考
アラブ連盟の旗 アラブ連盟 See en:Arab-American relations

The Arab League has an Embassy, and several Offices in the US.

アルジェリアの旗 アルジェリア 1962[138] See en:Algeria–United States relations

The official U.S. presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the U.S. Embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.

エジプトの旗 エジプト 1922[139] See en:Egypt–United States relations

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance US-Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

バーレーンの旗 バーレーン 1971[140] See en:Bahrain–United States relations
イランの旗 イラン 1850[141] アメリカ合衆国とイランの関係」を参照。

1850年、アメリカ合衆国とペルシャ王国は互いを国家承認した。国交は1883年に結ばれたが、1980年に断絶した[141]

イラクの旗 イラク 1931; 2004[142] See en:Iraq–United States relations
イスラエルの旗 イスラエル 1949[143] 米以関係」を参照。
ヨルダンの旗 ヨルダン 1949[144] See en:Jordan–United States relations
クウェートの旗 クウェート 1961[145] See en:Kuwait–United States relations
レバノンの旗 レバノン 1944[146] See en:Lebanon–United States relations
リビアの旗 リビア 1951[147] See en:Libya–United States relations

In 2011, the United States cut diplomatic relations with the Gaddafi regime. The United States recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya on July 15th, 2011.[148]

モロッコの旗 モロッコ 1905[149] See en:Morocco–United States relations
オマーンの旗 オマーン 1972[150] See en:Oman–United States relations
カタールの旗 カタール 1972[151] See en:Qatar–United States relations
サウジアラビアの旗 サウジアラビア 1940[152] See en:Saudi Arabia–United States relations
スーダンの旗 スーダン 1956[153] See en:Sudan–United States relations
シリアの旗 シリア 1944[154] See en:Syria–United States relations
チュニジアの旗 チュニジア 1956[155] See en:Tunisia–United States relations
アラブ首長国連邦の旗 アラブ首長国連邦 1972[156] See en:United Arab Emirates–United States relations

The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries has enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and US had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of US-UAE relations increased dramatically as a result of the US-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more U.S. Navy ships than any port outside the US.

イエメンの旗 イエメン 1946[157] See en:United States–Yemen relations

Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the war on terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional US support.[158]

サハラ以南のアフリカ[編集]

国交樹立年 備考
アンゴラの旗 アンゴラ 1994[159] See en:Angola–United States relations

Relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the U.S. government backed UNITA rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Marxism in 1992.

ベナンの旗 ベナン 1960[160] See en:United States-Benin relations

The two nations have had an excellent history of relations in the years since Benin embraced democracy. The U.S. Government continues to assist Benin with the improvement of living standards that are key to the ultimate success of Benin's experiment with democratic government and economic liberalization, and are consistent with U.S. values and national interest in reducing poverty and promoting growth. The bulk of the U.S. effort in support of consolidating democracy in Benin is focused on long-term human resource development through U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.[161]

ボツワナの旗 ボツワナ 1966[162] See en:Botswana–United States relations
ブルキナファソの旗 ブルキナファソ 1960[163] See en:Burkina Faso–United States relations
ブルンジの旗 ブルンジ 1962[164] See en:Burundi–United States relations
カメルーンの旗 カメルーン 1960[165] See en:Cameroon–United States relations
カーボベルデの旗 カーボベルデ 1975[166] See en:Cape Verde–United States relations
中央アフリカ共和国の旗 中央アフリカ共和国 1960[167] See en:Central African Republic–United States relations
チャドの旗 チャド 1960[168] See en:Chad–United States relations
コモロの旗 コモロ 1977[169] See en:Comoros–United States relations
コートジボワールの旗 コートジボワール 1960[170] See en:Côte d'Ivoire–United States relations
コンゴ民主共和国の旗 コンゴ民主共和国 1960[171] See en:Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations
ジブチの旗 ジブチ 1977[172] See en:Djibouti–United States relations
赤道ギニアの旗 赤道ギニア 1968[173] See en:Equatorial Guinea–United States relations
エリトリアの旗 エリトリア 1993[174] See en:Eritrea–United States relations
エチオピアの旗 エチオピア 1903[175] See en:Ethiopia–United States relations
ガボンの旗 ガボン 1960[176] See en:Gabon–United States relations
ガーナの旗 ガーナ 1957[177] See en:Ghana–United States relations
ギニアの旗 ギニア 1959[178] See en:Guinea–United States relations
ギニアビサウの旗 ギニアビサウ 1975[179] See en:Guinea-Bissau–United States relations
ケニアの旗 ケニア 1964[180] See en:Kenya–United States relations
レソトの旗 レソト 1966[181] See en:Lesotho–United States relations
リベリアの旗 リベリア 1864[182] See en:Liberia–United States relations
リビアの旗 リビア 1951[183] See en:Libya-United States relations
マダガスカルの旗 マダガスカル 1874[184] See en:Madagascar–United States relations
マラウイの旗 マラウイ 1964[185] See en:Malawi–United States relations
マリ共和国の旗 マリ 1960[186] See en:Mali–United States relations
モーリタニアの旗 モーリタニア 1960[187] See en:Mauritania–United States relations
モーリシャスの旗 モーリシャス 1968[188] See en:Mauritius–United States relations
モザンビークの旗 モザンビーク 1975[189] See en:Mozambique–United States relations
ナミビアの旗 ナミビア 1990[190] See en:Namibia–United States relations
ニジェールの旗 ニジェール 1960[191] See en:Niger–United States relations
ナイジェリアの旗 ナイジェリア 1960[192] See en:Nigeria–United States relations
ルワンダの旗 ルワンダ 1962[193] See en:Rwanda–United States relations
サントメ・プリンシペの旗 サントメ・プリンシペ 1976[194] See en:São Tomé and Príncipe–United States relations
セネガルの旗 セネガル 1960[195] See en:Senegal–United States relations
セーシェルの旗 セーシェル 1976[196] See en:Seychelles–United States relations
シエラレオネの旗 シエラレオネ 1961[197] See en:Sierra Leone–United States relations
コンゴ共和国の旗 コンゴ共和国 1960[198] See en:Republic of the Congo–United States relations
ソマリアの旗 ソマリア 1960[199] See en:Somalia–United States relations

The United States recognizes the Transitional Federal Government as the official national government of Somalia.[200] It also engages Somalia's smaller regional administrations, such as Puntland and Somaliland, to ensure broad-based inclusion in the peace process.[201] With the Somali federal authorities scheduled to shift in August 2012 from an interim administration to a permanent representative body, the Somali government,[202] the international community and the U.S. authorities have all emphasized their support for the political transition.[203]

南アフリカ共和国の旗 南アフリカ 1929[204] See en:South Africa–United States relations
南スーダンの旗 南スーダン 2011[205] See en:South Sudan-United States relations
スワジランドの旗 スワジランド 1968[206] See en:Swaziland–United States relations
タンザニアの旗 タンザニア 1961[207] See en:Tanzania–United States relations
ガンビアの旗 ガンビア 1965[208] See en:The Gambia–United States relations
トーゴの旗 トーゴ 1960[209] See en:Togo–United States relations
ウガンダの旗 ウガンダ 1962[210] See en:Uganda–United States relations

Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Yoweri Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism.

ザンビアの旗 ザンビア 1964[211] See en:United States–Zambia relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States of America and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The U.S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the United States Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Treasury, Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The majority of U.S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

ジンバブエの旗 ジンバブエ 1980[212] See en:United States–Zimbabwe relations

After Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe's rival and leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe under a power-sharing agreement, the Barack Obama administration extended its congratulations to Tsvangirai, but said that the U.S. would wait for evidence of Mugabe's cooperation with the MDC before it would consider lifting its sanctions.[213] In early March 2009, Obama proclaimed that US sanctions would be protracted provisionally for another year, because Zimbabwe's political crisis as yet unresolved.[214]

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/australia
  2. ^ Australia is America's closest ally
  3. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/fiji
  4. ^ “Fiji military stages coup, U.S. suspends aid”. Reuters. (2006年12月5日). http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=topNews&storyID=2006-12-05T191720Z_01_SP305135_RTRUKOC_0_US-FIJI.xml&WTmodLoc=NewsHome-C1-topNews-6 
  5. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/kiribati
  6. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/micronesia
  7. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/nauru
  8. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/new-zealand
  9. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/palau
  10. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/papua-new-guinea
  11. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/samoa
  12. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/solomon-islands
  13. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/tonga
  14. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/tonga
  15. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/vanuatu
  16. ^ HUFFER, Elise, Grands hommes et petites îles: La politique extérieure de Fidji, de Tonga et du Vanuatu, Paris: Orstom, 1993, ISBN 2-7099-1125-6, p.278
  17. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/argentina
  18. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/bolivia
  19. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/brazil
  20. ^ Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. U.S. Army War College. 2004-04-03.
  21. ^ http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf
  22. ^ US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations
  23. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/canada
  24. ^ ジェイムズ・タッグは、カナダの学生がカナダ文化やカナダの主権が圧倒されるようになるという大きな恐れを持っていると報告している。Tagg, "'And, We Burned down the White House, Too': American History, Canadian Undergraduates, and Nationalism," The History Teacher, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2004), pp. 309-334 in JSTOR; J. L. Granatstein. Yankee Go Home: Canadians and Anti-Americanism (1997)
  25. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/cuba
  26. ^ Cuban Democracy Act of 1992”. State Department. 2012年4月27日閲覧。
  27. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/chile
  28. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/colombia
  29. ^ John Barry, From Drug War to Dirty War: Plan Colombia and the U.S. Role in Human Rights Violations in Colombia, 12 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 161, 164 (Spring, 2002).
  30. ^ Marc Grossman. Subsecretario de Estado para Asuntos Políticos. Universidad de Georgetown. Conferencia Uniendo esfuerzos por Colombia. US Embassy of Colombia (September 2, 2002). Available at http://bogota.usembassy.gov/wwwsmg13.shtml. Retrieved on March 27, 2006. (Spanish) (English version available)
  31. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/costa-rica
  32. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/dominican-republic
  33. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/ecuador
  34. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/el-salvador
  35. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/guatemala
  36. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/haiti
  37. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/honduras
  38. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/mexico
  39. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/nicaragua
  40. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/panama
  41. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/paraguay
  42. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/peru
  43. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/uruguay
  44. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/venezuela
  45. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/antigua-barbuda
  46. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/bahamas
  47. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/barbados
  48. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/belize
  49. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/dominica
  50. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/grenada
  51. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/guyana
  52. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/jamaica
  53. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/saint-kitts-nevis
  54. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/saint-lucia
  55. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/saint-vincent-grenadines
  56. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/suriname
  57. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/trinidad-and-tobago
  58. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/china
  59. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/japan
  60. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/mongolia
  61. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/korea
  62. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/korea-south
  63. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/brunei
  64. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/burma
  65. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/cambodia
  66. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/timor-leste
  67. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/indonesia
  68. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/laos
  69. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/laos
  70. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/philippines
  71. ^ http://globalnation.inquirer.net/viewpoints/viewpoints/view/20091008-229048/US-should-do-right-by-its-ally-Philippines
  72. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/singapore
  73. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/thailand
  74. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/vietnam
  75. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/afghanistan
  76. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/bangladesh
  77. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35839.htm
  78. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/india
  79. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/kazakhstan
  80. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/kyrgyzstan
  81. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/maldives
  82. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/nepal
  83. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/pakistan
  84. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/sri-lanka
  85. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/tajikistan
  86. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/turkmenistan
  87. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/uzbekistan
  88. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/albania
  89. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/andorra
  90. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/armenia
  91. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/austria
  92. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/azerbaijan
  93. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/belarus
  94. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/belgium
  95. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/bosnia-herzegovina
  96. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/bulgaria
  97. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/croatia
  98. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/cyprus
  99. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/czech-republic
  100. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/denmark
  101. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/estonia
  102. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/finland
  103. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/france
  104. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/georgia
  105. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/germany
  106. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/greece
  107. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/holy-see
  108. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/hungary
  109. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/iceland
  110. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/ireland
  111. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/italy
  112. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/kosovo
  113. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/latvia
  114. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/liechtenstein
  115. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/lithuania
  116. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/luxembourg
  117. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/malta
  118. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/moldova
  119. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/monaco
  120. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/montenegro
  121. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/netherlands
  122. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/norway
  123. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/poland
  124. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/portugal
  125. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/macedonia
  126. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/romania
  127. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/russia
  128. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/san-marino
  129. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/spain
  130. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/serbia
  131. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/slovakia
  132. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/slovenia
  133. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/sweden
  134. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/switzerland
  135. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/turkey
  136. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/ukraine
  137. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/united-kingdom
  138. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/algeria
  139. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/egypt
  140. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/bahrain
  141. ^ a b http://history.state.gov/countries/iran
  142. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/iraq
  143. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/israel
  144. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/jordan
  145. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/kuwait
  146. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/lebanon
  147. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/libya
  148. ^ “U.S. formally recognizes Libyan rebels as legitimate government Read more: http://www.kansascity.com/2011/07/15/3017291/us-formally-recognizes-libyan.html#ixzz1SHwmgkfJ”. Kansas City star. (2011年7月15日). http://www.kansascity.com/2011/07/15/3017291/us-formally-recognizes-libyan.html 2011年7月16日閲覧。 
  149. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/morocco
  150. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/oman
  151. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/qatar
  152. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/saudi-arabia
  153. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/sudan
  154. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/syria
  155. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/tunisia
  156. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/united-arab-emirates
  157. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/yemen
  158. ^ Sharp, Jeremy M. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations (RL34170) (PDF). Congressional Research Service (January 22, 2009). この記述には、アメリカ合衆国内でパブリックドメインとなっている記述を含む。
  159. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/angola
  160. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/benin
  161. ^ "Background Note: Benin". U.S. Department of State (June 2008). この記述には、アメリカ合衆国内でパブリックドメインとなっている記述を含む。
  162. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/botswana
  163. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/burkina-faso
  164. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/burundi
  165. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/cameroon
  166. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/cape-verde
  167. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/central-african-republic
  168. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/chad
  169. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/comoros
  170. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/cote-divoire
  171. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/congo-democratic-republic
  172. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/djibouti
  173. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/equatorial-guinea
  174. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/eritrea
  175. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/ethiopia
  176. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/gabon
  177. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/ghana
  178. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/guinea
  179. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/guinea-bissau
  180. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/kenya
  181. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/lesotho
  182. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/liberia
  183. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/libya
  184. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/madagascar
  185. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/malawi
  186. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/mali
  187. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/mauritania
  188. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/mauritius
  189. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/mozambique
  190. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/namibia
  191. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/niger
  192. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/nigeria
  193. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/rwanda
  194. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/sao-tome-and-principe
  195. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/senegal
  196. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/seychelles
  197. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/sierra-leone
  198. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/congo-republic
  199. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/somalia
  200. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2863.htm
  201. ^ The US Dual Track Policy Towards Somalia
  202. ^ Somalia: PM Gaas says ‘no extension for TFG’
  203. ^ “Clinton threatens sanctions for undermining Somali political transition”. The Hill. (2012年2月23日). http://thehill.com/video/administration/212373-clinton-threatens-sanctions-for-undermining-somali-political-transition- 
  204. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/south-africa
  205. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/south-sudan
  206. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/swaziland
  207. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/tanzania
  208. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/gambia
  209. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/togo
  210. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/uganda
  211. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/zambia
  212. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/zimbabwe
  213. ^ “Obama congratulates Tsvangirai”. NewsToday.co.za. (2009年2月13日). http://www.newstoday.co.za/cgi-bin/newstoday/show.pl?1234511214 
  214. ^ AFP 2009.

外部リンク[編集]