楽浪郡

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楽浪郡
Map of The east barbarian 0.png
紀元前1世紀頃の東夷諸国と楽浪郡の位置
各種表記
ハングル 낙랑군(南) / 락랑군(北)
漢字 樂浪郡
発音 らくろうぐん
日本語読み: ナンナングン(南) / ランラングン(北)
2000年式
MR式
Nangnang-gun(南) / Rangrang-gun(北)
Nangnang-gun(南) / Rangrang-gun(北)
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楽浪郡
各種表記
繁体字 樂浪郡
簡体字 乐浪郡
拼音 Lèlàng Jùn
注音符号 ㄌㄜˋㄌㄤˋ ㄐㄨˋㄋ
発音: ローランジュン
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朝鮮歷史
朝鮮の歴史
考古学 櫛目文土器時代 8000 BC-1500 BC
無文土器時代 1500 BC-300 AD
伝説 檀君朝鮮
史前 箕子朝鮮
辰国 衛氏朝鮮
原三国 辰韓 弁韓 漢四郡
馬韓 帯方郡 楽浪郡

三国 伽耶
42-
562
百済
346-660
高句麗
前37-668
新羅
356-
統一
新羅
熊津安東都護府
統一新羅
鶏林州都督府
676-892
安東
都護府
668-756
渤海
698
-926
後三国 新羅
-935

百済

892
-936
後高句麗
901
-918
女真
統一
王朝
高麗 918-
遼陽行省
東寧双城耽羅
元朝
高麗 1356-1392
李氏朝鮮 1392-1897
大韓帝国 1897-1910
近代 日本統治 1910-1945
現代 連合軍軍政期 1945-1948
大韓民国
1948-
朝鮮民主主義
人民共和国

1948-
Portal:朝鮮

楽浪郡(らくろうぐん)は、漢朝によって設置され、紀元前108年から西暦313年まで存在した、朝鮮半島北部の植民地との見方も存在する[1][2]一方で、完全に漢帝国が直轄する内地という見方も存在する[3])。真番郡臨屯郡玄菟郡と共に漢四郡と称される。東方における中華文明の出先機関であり、朝鮮や日本の中華文明受容に大きな役割を果たした。楽浪郡の住民は王氏が多く韓氏これに次ぎ、この二氏でかなりの率を占めていた。

沿革・変遷[編集]

成立[編集]

前108年元封3年)、朝鮮半島西部にあった衛氏朝鮮を滅ぼした漢朝により設置されたのが始まりである。郡治所は朝鮮県(衛氏朝鮮の王険城、今の平壌)に置かれ、郡の南部には南部都尉が置かれていた。

拡大[編集]

前82年始元5年)には真番・臨屯が廃止され、臨屯郡北部の6県と玄菟郡の1県が楽浪郡に編入された。これを嶺東七県(日本海側)といい嶺東7県を管轄する軍事組織として東部都尉が置かれた。玄菟郡はその後段階的に縮小移転している。

この結果、楽浪郡は25県を抱え、この拡大した楽浪郡を創業期の楽浪郡に対して歴史学では「大楽浪郡」ともいう。『漢書』地理志によるとその戸数は6万2,812戸、口数は40万6,748人あった[4]平壌郊外の貞柏洞364号墳で発見された「楽浪郡初元四年県別戸口簿」によると、25県の初元4年(紀元前45年)の戸数は4万3251戸、人口は28万0361人であった[5]

混乱期[編集]

王莽による新朝が成立すると楽浪郡は楽鮮郡と改称され、諸県も名称変更された。その後の新末後漢初の混乱期に、土着漢人の王朝が反乱を起こして一時的[6]な独立国家を樹立したこともあったが、後漢光武帝が中国統一事業の過程で30年には楽浪郡を接収している。その年(30年)のうちに後漢は嶺東7県を廃止して、原住民の穢人を県侯に任命して独立させている。

帯方郡の分割[編集]

後漢末期の混乱期になると、遼東地方で台頭した公孫氏が楽浪郡にも勢力を伸ばしその支配下に収めた。

3世紀初頭には公孫氏の2代目、公孫康が郡南部の荒地を分離して再開発し、帯方郡を設置している。ただし、名目上は楽浪郡から帯方郡を分置したといっても、実際には帯方郡のほうが大きく楽浪郡はそれに比べて主役の座を譲った格好になった。

末期[編集]

三国時代には238年に楽浪・帯方郡を接収し、翌年(一説には同年)倭女王卑弥呼も帯方郡を通じて魏と通交した。265年魏に代わったが引き続き支配したが、八王の乱以後は衰退の一途を辿り、313年には高句麗に滅ぼされ、後に高句麗は楽浪郡の跡地に遷都した。楽浪・帯方の土着漢人達は高句麗・百済の支配下に入り、これらの王国に中華文明を伝える役割を果たした。

楽浪郡の考古[編集]

楽浪郡治は衛氏朝鮮国の都「王険」改め「朝鮮県」を郡治とし、現在の平壌市付近の大同江北岸(現在の平壌市街)に郡治が所在したと考えられている。

平壌市街一帯には楽浪漢墓と呼ばれる当時の墳墓が残り、その数は2,000以上と言われる。 楽浪漢墓の多くは郡の下級役人たちのもので、墓制は前期の木槨墓から後期の塼室墓に移行している。その多くは植民地時代に日本の考古学者によって発掘された。腐朽消滅していない漢代の木槨墓が初めて学術的に発掘され、大型の木馬など、大量の木製品、漆器が出土した。特に年号・製造部署が刻された漆器が重要で、前漢始元2年から後漢永平14年に至る長期間の遺品が出土している。殆どが四川省で制作された漆器である。その中で、南井里第116号古墳から出土した「漆絵人物画像文筺」は特に有名である。他にも銅鏡や官印、玉器、土器、漢銭などが出土した[7]

日本の壱岐市原の辻遺跡では楽浪郡の文物と一緒に弥生時代出雲の土器が出土しており、これは、楽浪郡と壱岐出雲の間の交流を示す。姫原西遺跡西谷墳墓群がある出雲平野には、強大な国があったと思われ、出雲が楽浪郡と深い関係を持ちながら、山陰を支配していた可能性がある。

異説[編集]

北朝鮮の学界と韓国の在野の学者[8]は、朝鮮半島には古代から自主独立の国があったとする独自の歴史観を掲げるため、楽浪郡が朝鮮半島にあったことを否定し、中国の遼東半島[9]にあったものとしている[10][11]。しかし、この主張は文献的にも考古学的にも問題があり、中国や日本やアメリカ(楽浪郡#引用文献)の学界では全く認められていない。この話では、楽浪郡が存在したとされる地域にあったのは「楽浪国」であるとする。これは中国の郡とは無縁の、朝鮮民族による独立国家であるとも、馬韓を構成する国の一つだったとも仮定し、戦前に北朝鮮で発掘された中国系の文化を示す出土品は、楽浪国が中国から攻め取った戦利品なのであるという。同時に楽浪国王の姓は「崔氏」という中国風の姓[12]だったともいう。『三国史記』によると、30年の後漢による楽浪郡の接収はなく、支配者が王調から崔理に代わっただけで、引き続き楽浪郡は独立していて「楽浪国」となっていた。高句麗は37年に楽浪国を滅ぼして併合したが44年に後漢が水軍を派兵して奪還、楽浪郡を再建したという。しかし、この主張も文献的にも考古学的にも問題があり、韓国と北朝鮮を除く学界では全く認められていない。今日、南北朝鮮で楽浪郡が帝国主義の偽造として悪魔化される理由は、これらは植民地時代に日本の歴史学者考古学者によって発見されたからである。その発見によって、漢王朝が平壌付近を統治しており、この中国の郡が朝鮮の文明の発展に大きな影響を与えた事が強調される[13]。北朝鮮が挑戦するまでは、楽浪郡は紀元前108年に古朝鮮を破った後に漢の武帝が確立した郡であったことは「普遍的に認められていた」[14]。北朝鮮の学者は、漢王朝のを扱うにあたり、それらを古朝鮮や高句麗の遺跡として再解釈している[15]。中国の漢に見られる物との否定できない類似性を持つ遺物のために、彼らは、それらが貿易と国際的な接触を通じて導入されたか、または偽造だとし、「決して遺物の朝鮮的特性を否定する根拠として解釈すべきではない」と提唱する[16]。北朝鮮はまた、楽浪は2つあったとし、漢は実は遼東半島遼河の楽浪を治めており、一方、平壌は紀元前3世紀から2世紀まで存在した「独立した朝鮮の国家」楽浪だったと言っている[17][18]。彼らによると、楽浪の伝統的な見方は、中国の中国至上主義者と日本帝国主義者によって拡大された[19]

その他[編集]

現在の平壌市には「楽浪区域」という行政区や「楽浪線」という鉄道の路線がある。

脚注[編集]

[ヘルプ]
  1. ^
  2. ^ そもそも漢代のは内郡と辺郡にわけられ、外国や異民族と境界を接触している郡を辺郡といい、それ以外の郡(中国の本土の国内の郡)を内郡といった。辺郡は、それぞれごとに詳細な事情や度合いなどは様々に異なるが、中国系の移民と先住民である異民族が混在する地域であった。太守が都尉(軍事担当官)を兼任する内郡に対し、辺郡では太守と別に複数の都尉が置かれて域内を分割統治するなど事実上の軍事支配体制であり、辺郡はおおむね植民地的な存在であった。
  3. ^
    • 八幡和郎「それに代わったのが、前漢初期の王配下の亡命者が建てた衛氏朝鮮ですが、漢に朝貢しながら周辺国を攻めたので、武帝によって討伐され、楽浪郡が置かれました。これを漢帝国の植民地と誤って紹介されることがありますが、郡県が置かれているので、完全に漢帝国が直轄する内地だったのです(これは大事な視点です)。」『○×でわかる [完全解説]なるほど!中国史』PHP研究所2011年
  4. ^ 『漢書』地理志第八下。ちくま学芸文庫版『漢書』3、413頁。
  5. ^ 李成市「東アジアの木簡文化」136頁。
  6. ^ 6年間に渡って楽浪郡を実質わがものとしていたが形式的には独立していたのは最後の半年間だけである。
  7. ^ これらの出土品にみえる人名は王氏ついで韓氏を姓とするものが多く、王氏は楽浪王氏とよばれ元は山東半島系の移民と考えられている。また王氏についで多い韓氏は河北省方面からの移民と考えられている。
  8. ^ “「中国の東北工程への反論、丹斎先生が70年前に準備」”. 朝鮮日報. (2006年11月11日). http://www.chosunonline.com/article/20061111000001 2011年6月3日閲覧。 
  9. ^ 正確には遼河を挟んだ流域。この場合、古代の「遼水」とは今の遼河ではなく大凌河のことであるとする。当然、当時の遼東郡とは今の遼西のことであり、李址麟は従来遼西郡とされてきた地は正しくは右北平郡であるとしている。こういう具合に次々と西へ西へと修正を加え、朝鮮民族史学の祖申采浩は当時の上谷郡とは今の代県(大同市)のことであるとする。
  10. ^ 渡辺延志 (2009年3月19日). “紀元前1世紀の楽浪郡木簡発見(1/2ページ)”. 朝日新聞. http://www.asahi.com/culture/news_culture/TKY200903190125.html 2011年6月3日閲覧。 
  11. ^ 渡辺延志 (2009年3月19日). “紀元前1世紀の楽浪郡木簡発見(2/2ページ)”. 朝日新聞. http://www.asahi.com/culture/news_culture/TKY200903190125_01.html 2011年6月3日閲覧。 
  12. ^ 『三国史記』に楽浪国王崔理が登場する。通常は楽浪郡太守のことと解される。
  13. ^ Pai, Hyung Il (2000), Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories, Harvard University Asia Center, pp. 127–129 
  14. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 23–25 
  15. ^ Pai, Hyung Il (2000), Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories, Harvard University Asia Center, pp. 127–129 
  16. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 509 
  17. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 23–25 
  18. ^ Armstrong, Charles K. (1995), “Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State”, Korean Studies (University of Hawaii Press) 19: 11–12 
  19. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 23–25 

参考文献[編集]

  • 班固著、小竹武夫訳『漢書』3(志下)、筑摩書房(ちくま学芸文庫)、1998年。
  • 李成市「東アジアの木簡文化」、木簡学会・編『木簡から古代がみえる』、岩波書店(岩波新書)、2010年。
  • 井上秀雄 『古代朝鮮』 日本放送出版協会〈NHKブックス172〉、1972年ISBN 4-14-001172-6

引用文献[編集]

"In 108 B.C.E. an emperor of China's Han dynasty sent troops to the empire's remotest border and set up four commanderies, or military outposts."
"Immediately after destroying Wiman Chosŏn, the Han empire established administrative units to rule large territories in the northern Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria."
  • Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 223. ISBN 9780549440369. 
"Lelang Commandery was crucial to understanding the early history of Korea, which lasted from 108 BCE to 313 CE around the P'yongyang area. However, because of its nature as a Han colony and the exceptional attention paid to it by Japanese colonial scholars for making claims of the innate heteronomy of Koreans, post 1945 Korean scholars intentionally avoided the issue of Lelang."
  • Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 215. ISBN 9780549440369. 
"Lelang (K. Nangnang) Commandery was crucial to understanding the early history of Korea, which lasted from 108 BCE to 313 CE around the P'yongyang area."
"But when Emperor Wu conquered Choson, all the small barbarian tribes in the northeastern region were incorporated into the established Han commanderies because of the overwhelming military might of Han China."
"Despite recent suggestions by North Korean scholars that Lelang was not a Chinese commandery, the traditional view will be adhered to here. Lelang was one of four commanderies newly instituted by the Han Dynasty in 108 BC in the former region of Chaoxian. Of these four commanderies, only two (Lelang and Xuantu) survived successive reorganizations; and it seems that even these had their headquarters relocated once or twice."
"When material evidence from the Han commandery site excavated during the colonial period began to be reinterpreted by Korean nationalist historians as the first full-fledged "foreign" occupation in Korean history, Lelang's location in the heart of the Korean peninsula became particularly irksome because the finds seemed to verify Japanese colonial theories concerning the dependency of Korean civilization on China."
"At present, the site of Lelang and surrounding ancient Han Chinese remains are situated in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang. Although North Korean scholars have continued to excavate Han dynasty tombs in the postwar period, they have interpreted them as manifestations of the Kochoson or the Koguryo kingdom."
  • Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (May 1981), “Reinterpreting Traditional History in North Korea”, The Journal of Asian Studies 40 (3): 509, doi:10.2307/2054553 .
"These items, they insist, must have been introduced into Korea through trade or other international contacts and "should not by any means be construed as a basis to deny the Korean characteristics of the artifacts" found in the P'yongyang area."
"Chinese forces subsequently conquered the eastern half of the peninsula and made lolang, near modern Pyongyang, the chief base for Chinese rule. Chinese sources recall how China used not only military force but also assassination and divide-and-conquer tactics to subdue Chosŏn and divide the territory into four commanderies."
"For the next four centuries a northwestern part of the Korean peninsula was directly incorporated in to the Chinese Empire.... The Taedong River basin, the area where the modern city of P'yongyang is located, became the center of the Lelang commandery."
"The way of life maintained by the elite at the capital in the P'yongyang area, which is known from the tombs and scattered archaeological remains, evinces a prosperous, refined, and very Chinese culture."
"The Chinese, having conquered Choson, set up four administrative units called commanderies. The Lelang commandery was located along the Ch'ongch'on and Tae­dong rivers from the coast to the interior highlands. Three other com­manderies were organized: Xuantu, Lintun, and Zhenfan. Lintun and originally Xuantu were centered on the east coast of northern Korea. Zhenfan was probably located in the region south of Lelang, although there is some uncertainty about this. After Emperor Wu's death in 87 BCE a retrenchment began under his successor, Emperor Chao (87-74 BCE). In 82 BCE Lintun was merged into Xuantu, and Zhenfan into Lelang. Around 75 BCE Xuantu was relocated most probably in the Tonghua region of Manchuria and parts of old Lintun merged into Lelang. Later a Daifang commandery was created south of Lelang in what was later Hwanghae Province in northern Korea. Lelang was the more populous and prosperous outpost of Chinese civilization."
"The Korean state was annexed by China early in the Han period, and in the four territories of Korea, Chinese command was established."
"Han China resumes its effort to subdue Korea, launching two military expeditions that bring much of the peninsula under Chinese control; it sets up four commanderies in conquered Korea."
"After a period of decline, Old Choson falls to Wiman, an exile from the Yan state in northern China. Wiman proves to be a strong ruler, but his ambitious program of expansion eventually brings him into conflict with the Han dynasty of China. The Han defeats Wiman Choson and establishes a protectorate over northern Korea in 108 b.c. Resistance to Chinese hegemony, however, is strong, and China reduces the territory under its active control to Nang-nang colony with an administrative center near modern Pyongyang."
"Chinese civilization had started to flow into the Korean Peninsula through Nang-nang. This was the only time in Korean history that China could establish its colonies in the central part of Korea, where occupation forces were stationed. The Han Empire not only occupied Korea, but expanded westward to Persia and Afghanistan."
"Lelang commandery, with its seat in modern Pyongyang, was the most important of the four."
"The Han Chinese triumph was possible because the political solidarity of Wiman Joseon, which was nothing more than a loose tribal confederation, was not centralized enough to hold back external invasion. In this region, Wudi established four prefectures: Lelang, Zhenfan, Lintun, and Xientu."
"As the Yen gave way in China to the Qin (221-207 B.C.) and the Han dynasties (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), Choson declined, and refugee populations migrated eastward. Out of this milieu, emerged Wiman, a man who assumed the kingship of Choson sometime between 194 and 180 B.C. The Kingdom of Wiman Choson melded Chinese influence, and under the Old Choson federated structure--apparently reinvigorated under Wiman--the state again expanded over hundreds of kilometers of territory. Its ambitions ran up against a Han invasion, however, and Wiman Choson fell in 108 B.C."
"From approximately 108 B. C. until 313, Lolang was a great center of Chinese statecraft, art, industry (including the mining of iron ore), and commerce. Lolang's influence was widespread; it attracted immigrants from China and exacted tribute from several states south of the Han River that patterned their civilization and government after Lolang."
"Historical accounts also emphasized the influence of the Chinese Han Commanderies, particulary the Lelang and northern Korean states (historically known as Kogury o and Ye), to rising social complexity in the south."
"Chinese commanderies at Lelang (modern Pyongyang) functioned as the political and military arm of Chinese dynasties, beginning with Han, as well as the major contact point between the advanced Chinese civilization and the local population."
"The latter, associated with Han China, are important, as their discovery permits us to infer the existence of relations between the Han commanderies and the Samhan societies."
"By the middle of the fourth century BCE, Yan had advanced into the coastal corridor of western Liaoning. Later, the Han fixed their border at the Liao River, which divides Liaoxi from Liaodong. Han attempts to penetrate further east culminated in the establishment of four Han commanderies (108–107 BCE), although only one, Lelang (K. Nangnang), was to survive for very long."
"These tombs are associated with the Lelang commandery, which was established by the Han dynasty of China, successor to the Qin. Han generals conquered the armies of Wiman's grandson Ugo and established control over the northern part of the Korean peninsula."
"Subsequently, the establishment by China's Han dynasty of their four commanderies on the soil of Wiman' s Ancient Choson in 108 B.C. must have familiarized the resident Koreans with Chinese and the Chinese script."
"The Han established 'four commanderies' (Chin. sijun, Kor. sagun) in the conquered territories of Wiman Chosŏn, The commanderies were named Lelang (Kor. Nangnang), Zhenfan (Kor. Chinbon), Lintun (Kor. Imdun), and Xuantu (Kor. Hyéna'o)."
"The Wei Ji (compiled 233–97) places the Yemaek in the Korean peninsula at the time of the Han commanderies in the first century BC, giving them a specifically Korean identity at least by that time."
"In 108 B.C. most of the Korean peninsula was divided into four Han commanderies, the most important of which was Lelang."
"Northeastwards Emperor Wu's forces conquered northern Korea in 108 b.c. and established four command headquarters there."
"For certain political and strategic reasons, it was conquered by the army of the Han emperor Wu Ti in 108 B.C. and its territory was divided into four Chün: Lo-lang (乐浪), Hsüan-tu (ݰ菟), Chen-fan (真番) and Lin-t'un (临屯)."
"Nangnang commandery centered around Pyeong'yang was established when Emperor Wu of Han China attacked Gojoseon in 108 BC and was under the rule of Wei from 238. Wei is the country that destroyed the Later Han dynasty."
  • Armstrong, Charles K. (1995), “Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State”, Korean Studies (University of Hawaii Press) 19: 12, doi:10.1353/ks.1995.0017 
"North Korean historiography from the 1970s onward has stressed the unique, even sui generis, nature of Korean civilization going back to Old Chosön, whose capital, Wanggömsöng, is now located in the Liao River basin in Manchuria rather than near Pyongyang. Nangnang, then, was not a Chinese commandery but a Korean kingdom, based in the area of Pyongyang."
"108 BC: Han armies invade Wiman Choson; Chinese commanderies are set up across the north of the peninsula"
"313-314 AD:Chinese commanderies of Lelang and Daifang fall to Koguryo and Paekche"
"The Chinese commanderies did not extend to the southern half of the peninsula, stretching perhaps as far south as the Han river at the greatest extent, but they did reach the northeast coast."
"He then divided the country into military districts, of which the most important was that of Lolang, or Laklang, with headquarters near the modern Pyongyang. Tomb excavations in this area have produced much evidence of the influence of Han civilization in northern Korea."
"The best known of these commanderies is Lelang, centered on the present city of Pyongyang, now the capital of North Korea."
"Under Emperor Wu-ti, Han China extended her influence into Korea, and in 108 B.C., the peninsula became a part of the Chinese Empire, with four dependent provinces under the Chinese charge."
"The Chinese emplaced three commanderies in Wiman Chosŏn territory, the chief of which was called Lo-lang (Nangnang in Korean)."
  • Meyer, Milton W. (1997). Asia: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 118. ISBN 978-0847680634. 
"In southern Manchuria, and northern and central Korea, the Chinese established four commanderies, which were subdivided into prefectures."
"The structure, administration and way of life of Lolang become real as they are viewed in the essentially non-Chinese setting in which that Chinese colony was placed."
"In 109 BC, the Emperor Wu-ti of the Han Dynasty conquered Ancient Choson in an attempt to protect his sensitive north-east border."
"The Han dynasty created four outposts in Korea to control that portion of its border."
"Horse and chariot burials from the 2nd century BCE which are earlier than the Chinese commandery of Lelang (called Nangnang in Korean), which was established in 108 BCE, have also been found in the vicinity of Pyongyang and thus would date from the time of Wiman Chosun."
"Wiman Choson fell in 108 B.C.E. to the Chinese Han dynasty (194 B.C.E.– 220 C.E.), which subsequently set up commanderies, including lelang commandery (Kor.: Nangnang, 108 B.C.E.–313 C.E.) in the former Choson territory."
"Chinese forces subsequently conquered the eastern half of the peninsula and made Lolang, near modern Pyongyang, the chief center of Chinese rule."
  • Hwang, Kyung Moon (2010). A History of Korea: An Episodic Narrativea. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-0230205451. 
"In the corridor between the peninsula and northeast China, the Chinese Han dynasty established four “commanderies” that ruled over parts of the peninsula and Manchuria, much as modern imperial powers governed their colonies."
  • Tennant, Charles Roger (1996). A history of Korea. Kegan Paul International. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. 
"Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Koguryŏ grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei occupied the North of China, of which the Murong clan took the Shandong area, moved up to the Liao, and in 341 sacked and burned the Koguryŏ capital at Hwando. They took away some thousands of prisoners to provive cheap labour to build more walls of their own, and in 346 went on to wreak even greater destruction on Puyŏ, hastening what seems to have been a continuing migration of its people into the north-eastern area of the peninsula, but Koguryŏ, though temporarily weakened, would soon"
"The territorial extent of the Four Chinese Commanderies seems to have been limited to the area north of the Han River."
"As its administrative center, the Chinese built what was inessence a Chinese city where the governor, officials, merchants, and Chinese colonists lived. Their way of life in general can be surmised from the investigation of remains unearthed at T'osong-ni, the site of the Lelang administrative center near modern P'yongyang. The variety of burial objects found in their wooden and brickwork tombs attests to the lavish life syle of these Chinese officials, merchants, and colonial overloads in Lelang's capital. ... The Chinese administration had considerable impact on the life of the native population and ultimatedly the very fabric of Gojoseon society became eroded."
"map of "Korea in the confederated Kingdoms period (ca. 1st-3rd centuries A.D)"
"Han Chinese built four commanderies, or local military units, to rule the peninsula as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lolang (Nangnang in Korean), near present-day P'yongyang. It is illustrative of the relentlessly different historiography practiced in North Korea and South Korea, as well as the projection backward of Korean nationalism practiced by both sides, that North Korean historians deny that the Lolang Commandery was centered in Korea. They place it northwest of the peninsula, possibly near Beijing, in order to de- emphasize China's influence on ancient Korean history."
"Ancient Korean history is comprised of the following states, Former Choson, Later Choson, Wiman Choson, the Four Commanderies, the Three Han states, Silla, Koguryo, Later Koguryo, Paekche, Later Paekche, and Parhae."