玄菟郡

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第一玄菟郡、第二玄菟郡、第三玄菟郡
紀元前1世紀頃の東夷諸国と玄菟郡の位置

玄菟郡(げんとぐん)は、漢朝により現在の満州南部から北朝鮮に設置された植民地的な存在とする見方がある[1])。楽浪郡臨屯郡真番郡と共に漢四郡と称される。玄菟郡はその設置期間に3段階の沿革が存在し、それぞれ「第一玄菟郡」「第二玄菟郡」「第三玄菟郡」とよばれている。歴史研究ではこれらを混同を避けるべく明確な分類を行う必要がある。

前史[編集]

  • 前134年元光 (漢)元年)、前漢濊州(遼東郡の東北方面、のちの蒼海郡の地か)を取らんとして城邑を築いた。
  • 前128年元朔元年)冬、穢君南閭ら(穢族の首長の「南閭」たち)が28万[2]の穢人を率いて投降、その地に「蒼海郡」を設置(「滄海郡」と書くのは誤りである)
  • 前126年(元朔3年)春、蒼海郡を廃止。この時、現地の首長(南閭か?)に「穢王之印」を授けている。
前134年から前126年までの9年間は前漢と穢族との間に武力対立が継続していたとする説も存在する)


第一玄菟郡[編集]

満州の歴史
箕子朝鮮 東胡 濊貊
沃沮
粛慎
遼西郡 遼東郡
遼西郡 遼東郡
前漢 遼西郡 遼東郡 衛氏朝鮮 匈奴
漢四郡 夫余
後漢 遼西郡 烏桓 鮮卑 挹婁
遼東郡 高句麗
玄菟郡
昌黎郡 公孫度
遼東郡
玄菟郡
西晋 平州
慕容部 宇文部
前燕 平州
前秦 平州
後燕 平州
北燕
北魏 営州 契丹 庫莫奚 室韋
東魏 営州 勿吉
北斉 営州
北周 営州
柳城郡 靺鞨
燕郡
遼西郡
営州 松漠都督府 饒楽都督府 室韋都督府 安東都護府 渤海国 黒水都督府
五代十国 営州 契丹 渤海国
上京道   東丹 女真
中京道 定安
東京道
東京路
上京路
東遼 大真国
遼陽行省
遼東都司 奴児干都指揮使司
建州女真 海西女真 野人女真
満州
 

東三省
ロマノフ朝
中華民国
東三省
ソ連
極東
満州国
中華人民共和国
中国東北部
ロシア連邦
極東連邦管区/極東ロシア
中国朝鮮関係史
Portal:中国
朝鮮歷史
朝鮮の歴史
考古学 櫛目文土器時代 8000 BC-1500 BC
無文土器時代 1500 BC-300 AD
伝説 檀君朝鮮
史前 箕子朝鮮
辰国 衛氏朝鮮
原三国 辰韓 弁韓 漢四郡
馬韓 帯方郡 楽浪郡

三国 伽耶
42-
562
百済
346-660
高句麗
前37-668
新羅
356-
統一
新羅
熊津安東都護府
統一新羅
鶏林州都督府
676-892
安東
都護府
668-756
渤海
698
-926
後三国 新羅
-935

百済

892
-936
後高句麗
901
-918
女真
統一
王朝
高麗 918-
遼陽行省
東寧双城耽羅
元朝
高麗 1356-1392
李氏朝鮮 1392-1897
大韓帝国 1897-1910
近代 日本統治 1910-1945
現代 連合軍軍政期 1945-1948
大韓民国
1948-
朝鮮民主主義
人民共和国

1948-
Portal:朝鮮

前107年(元封4年)に遼東郡の東・楽浪郡の北に隣接する地に設置され、幽州に属した。かつての蒼海郡の再建が玄菟郡であるとの説もある。郡治は夫租県[3]に置かれた。

郡内の県は、夫租、高句驪、西蓋馬、上殷台の4県しかわからない。これらの県は第三玄莵郡の県として移転されたので後々まで記録に残ったものであり、これ以外の県についての詳細は記録が散逸して不明である。が、当時の戸数は45,006戸、人口は221,845人。当初の領域は遼東郡北端から出発して中朝国境地帯山岳部(吉林省東部と北朝鮮慈江道・両江道に跨がる地域)から咸鏡道を通り日本海に達する回廊状に県城が並んだものと推察してこれを「玄菟回廊」[4][5]と呼ぶ学者もいる。

前82年始元5年)に漢四郡のうち真番郡・臨屯郡が廃止され、そのうち臨屯郡の6県が楽浪郡に編入された。玄菟郡はこのとき廃止をまぬがれたものの、夫租県が楽浪郡に編入された。この7県(嶺東7県)は楽浪郡東部都尉の管轄とされた。玄菟郡の郡治は夫租県から変わって高句驪県(現在の吉林省集安市通溝郷)[6]に移された[7]。これで、玄莵郡領域のうち日本海沿岸部(咸鏡南北道)は夫租県とその周辺一帯を除いて大部分が放棄されたことになる。同時に臨屯郡領域のうち北部の6県を除く半分以上(9県)も放棄された(3世紀の江原道の「東濊族」の起源)。

第二玄菟郡[編集]

紀元前75年元鳳6年)になると、未開であり人口の少ない北部や東部の丘陵・山岳地帯は、統治費用が嵩むとして直接支配を徐々に放棄して、冊封体制下での間接支配に切り替える方針になり、玄菟郡は西へ縮小移転された。郡治の高句驪県は現在の遼寧省撫順市内の東部、新賓満族自治県永陵老城村(昔の興京)付近へ移され、元の場所には高句麗侯(後の高句麗王国の前身)が冊封された。

始建国4年(12年)、異民族蔑視政策を進めた王莽が高句麗を下句麗へ改名した為に、高句麗が玄菟郡を侵犯するようになる。後漢が成立すると光武帝建武6年(30年)に楽浪郡東部都尉は廃止となり、嶺東7県の直接統治は放棄され、それぞれ県侯として冊封して独立させた(その一例として夫租薉君・夫租長の銀印などが発見されている。3世紀の「沃沮族」の起源)。建武8年(32年)に高句麗侯は再び冊封体制下へ組み込まれ、候から王へ昇格された。

第三玄菟郡[編集]

107年永初元年)になると、玄菟郡はさらに西に移転し遼東郡の内部に移された。遼東郡北部都尉の管轄区を遼東郡から切り離して新しく玄菟郡とし、遼東郡に隣接していた旧玄菟郡を廃止、高句麗による領有を許可した。これにより、旧玄菟郡の領域はすべて放棄された。郡治の高句麗県は現在の瀋陽(瀋陽と撫順の中間からやや瀋陽寄り)に遷された。諸県のうち、高句麗県・上殷台県西蓋馬県の3県は、元々は玄菟郡にあった諸県の県名を移動させてきたものの残滓である。戸数は4万5006、口数は22万1845人。

高句麗との関係[編集]

後漢末、遼東太守の公孫氏が独立すると、隣接する旧玄菟郡西端部から高句麗を駆逐した。その後、曹魏は侵犯を繰り返す高句麗に対して、毌丘倹を派遣して大いに打ち破り、丸都城を毀城した。これにより、旧玄菟郡西部は魏の領有となり、西晋前燕前秦後燕へと継承された。東晋の時代になると、旧玄菟と玄菟遼東の二郡は後燕と高句麗との間での争奪が繰り返されたが、404年、最終的に遼東郡は高句麗の領有となった。これに前後して玄菟郡も高句麗の手に落ちたと推測される。

高句麗王国を構成する5部族の前身が玄菟郡の5県の県侯だったとすれば、32年建武8年)に王に冊封された段階で5部族の連合体としての王国が成立したともみえる。高句麗王国の王都「丸都城」は玄莵城が訛ったものである。後世に編纂された『三国史記』に記載された伝承では、高句麗は前37年に建国されたことになっており、これは第二玄菟郡の期間内にあたるため、中国側から高句麗侯と呼ばれた勢力が大雑把にほぼその頃の建国であることは信憑性があると考えられている。なお、『三国史記』では高句麗は最初から王として出てくるが、中国が与える称号(冊封体制内での官職)としての「王」と、自国内の自称としての「王」は必ずしも一致しないのでこれは大きな矛盾とはいえない。

異説[編集]

北朝鮮の学界の定説及び韓国の学界の一部では、漢帝国による朝鮮半島併合の事実はなかったとして、漢四郡の位置が実は朝鮮半島の外部(具体的には通説でいう遼東郡の内部)に存在したと主張する。この説の場合の玄菟郡は、徐々に縮小したのではなく紀元前107年から一貫して瀋陽付近にあった(つまり通説でいう第三玄菟郡)というものである。しかしながら、北朝鮮・韓国以外の中国や日本やアメリカ(玄菟郡#引用文献)の学界では全く認められていない。

脚注・出典[編集]

[ヘルプ]
  1. ^
  2. ^ 人口28万人は1戸5人と概算すると約5万〜6万戸となり、後世(三世紀)の高句麗3万戸東穢2万戸沃沮5千戸の合計に近い。
  3. ^ 現在の北朝鮮咸鏡南道咸興市に相当
  4. ^ 森浩一著『考古紀行 騎馬民族の道はるか―高句麗古墳がいま語るもの』日本放送出版会
  5. ^ 森浩一監修『高句麗の歴史と遺跡』中央公論社
  6. ^ 高句驪県城は以後玄莵郡の郡治となったので一名「玄莵城」ともいった。
  7. ^ 少数意見ではあるが玄菟郡の郡治は夫租県ではなく最初から高句驪県にあったという異説を唱える学者(李丙燾)もいる。

参考文献[編集]

引用文献[編集]

"In 108 B.C.E. an emperor of China's Han dynasty sent troops to the empire's remotest border and set up four commanderies, or military outposts."
"Immediately after destroying Wiman Chosŏn, the Han empire established administrative units to rule large territories in the northern Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria."
  • Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 223. ISBN 9780549440369. 
"Lelang Commandery was crucial to understanding the early history of Korea, which lasted from 108 BCE to 313 CE around the P'yongyang area. However, because of its nature as a Han colony and the exceptional attention paid to it by Japanese colonial scholars for making claims of the innate heteronomy of Koreans, post 1945 Korean scholars intentionally avoided the issue of Lelang."
  • Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 215. ISBN 9780549440369. 
"Lelang (K. Nangnang) Commandery was crucial to understanding the early history of Korea, which lasted from 108 BCE to 313 CE around the P'yongyang area."
"But when Emperor Wu conquered Choson, all the small barbarian tribes in the northeastern region were incorporated into the established Han commanderies because of the overwhelming military might of Han China."
"Despite recent suggestions by North Korean scholars that Lelang was not a Chinese commandery, the traditional view will be adhered to here. Lelang was one of four commanderies newly instituted by the Han Dynasty in 108 BC in the former region of Chaoxian. Of these four commanderies, only two (Lelang and Xuantu) survived successive reorganizations; and it seems that even these had their headquarters relocated once or twice."
"When material evidence from the Han commandery site excavated during the colonial period began to be reinterpreted by Korean nationalist historians as the first full-fledged "foreign" occupation in Korean history, Lelang's location in the heart of the Korean peninsula became particularly irksome because the finds seemed to verify Japanese colonial theories concerning the dependency of Korean civilization on China."
"At present, the site of Lelang and surrounding ancient Han Chinese remains are situated in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang. Although North Korean scholars have continued to excavate Han dynasty tombs in the postwar period, they have interpreted them as manifestations of the Kochoson or the Koguryo kingdom."
  • Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (May 1981), “Reinterpreting Traditional History in North Korea”, The Journal of Asian Studies 40 (3): 509, doi:10.2307/2054553 .
"These items, they insist, must have been introduced into Korea through trade or other international contacts and "should not by any means be construed as a basis to deny the Korean characteristics of the artifacts" found in the P'yongyang area."
"Chinese forces subsequently conquered the eastern half of the peninsula and made lolang, near modern Pyongyang, the chief base for Chinese rule. Chinese sources recall how China used not only military force but also assassination and divide-and-conquer tactics to subdue Chosŏn and divide the territory into four commanderies."
"For the next four centuries a northwestern part of the Korean peninsula was directly incorporated in to the Chinese Empire.... The Taedong River basin, the area where the modern city of P'yongyang is located, became the center of the Lelang commandery."
"The way of life maintained by the elite at the capital in the P'yongyang area, which is known from the tombs and scattered archaeological remains, evinces a prosperous, refined, and very Chinese culture."
"The Chinese, having conquered Choson, set up four administrative units called commanderies. The Lelang commandery was located along the Ch'ongch'on and Tae­dong rivers from the coast to the interior highlands. Three other com­manderies were organized: Xuantu, Lintun, and Zhenfan. Lintun and originally Xuantu were centered on the east coast of northern Korea. Zhenfan was probably located in the region south of Lelang, although there is some uncertainty about this. After Emperor Wu's death in 87 BCE a retrenchment began under his successor, Emperor Chao (87-74 BCE). In 82 BCE Lintun was merged into Xuantu, and Zhenfan into Lelang. Around 75 BCE Xuantu was relocated most probably in the Tonghua region of Manchuria and parts of old Lintun merged into Lelang. Later a Daifang commandery was created south of Lelang in what was later Hwanghae Province in northern Korea. Lelang was the more populous and prosperous outpost of Chinese civilization."
"The Korean state was annexed by China early in the Han period, and in the four territories of Korea, Chinese command was established."
"Han China resumes its effort to subdue Korea, launching two military expeditions that bring much of the peninsula under Chinese control; it sets up four commanderies in conquered Korea."
"After a period of decline, Old Choson falls to Wiman, an exile from the Yan state in northern China. Wiman proves to be a strong ruler, but his ambitious program of expansion eventually brings him into conflict with the Han dynasty of China. The Han defeats Wiman Choson and establishes a protectorate over northern Korea in 108 b.c. Resistance to Chinese hegemony, however, is strong, and China reduces the territory under its active control to Nang-nang colony with an administrative center near modern Pyongyang."
"Chinese civilization had started to flow into the Korean Peninsula through Nang-nang. This was the only time in Korean history that China could establish its colonies in the central part of Korea, where occupation forces were stationed. The Han Empire not only occupied Korea, but expanded westward to Persia and Afghanistan."
"Lelang commandery, with its seat in modern Pyongyang, was the most important of the four."
"The Han Chinese triumph was possible because the political solidarity of Wiman Joseon, which was nothing more than a loose tribal confederation, was not centralized enough to hold back external invasion. In this region, Wudi established four prefectures: Lelang, Zhenfan, Lintun, and Xientu."
"As the Yen gave way in China to the Qin (221-207 B.C.) and the Han dynasties (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), Choson declined, and refugee populations migrated eastward. Out of this milieu, emerged Wiman, a man who assumed the kingship of Choson sometime between 194 and 180 B.C. The Kingdom of Wiman Choson melded Chinese influence, and under the Old Choson federated structure--apparently reinvigorated under Wiman--the state again expanded over hundreds of kilometers of territory. Its ambitions ran up against a Han invasion, however, and Wiman Choson fell in 108 B.C."
"From approximately 108 B. C. until 313, Lolang was a great center of Chinese statecraft, art, industry (including the mining of iron ore), and commerce. Lolang's influence was widespread; it attracted immigrants from China and exacted tribute from several states south of the Han River that patterned their civilization and government after Lolang."
"Historical accounts also emphasized the influence of the Chinese Han Commanderies, particulary the Lelang and northern Korean states (historically known as Kogury o and Ye), to rising social complexity in the south."
"Chinese commanderies at Lelang (modern Pyongyang) functioned as the political and military arm of Chinese dynasties, beginning with Han, as well as the major contact point between the advanced Chinese civilization and the local population."
"The latter, associated with Han China, are important, as their discovery permits us to infer the existence of relations between the Han commanderies and the Samhan societies."
"By the middle of the fourth century BCE, Yan had advanced into the coastal corridor of western Liaoning. Later, the Han fixed their border at the Liao River, which divides Liaoxi from Liaodong. Han attempts to penetrate further east culminated in the establishment of four Han commanderies (108–107 BCE), although only one, Lelang (K. Nangnang), was to survive for very long."
"These tombs are associated with the Lelang commandery, which was established by the Han dynasty of China, successor to the Qin. Han generals conquered the armies of Wiman's grandson Ugo and established control over the northern part of the Korean peninsula."
"Subsequently, the establishment by China's Han dynasty of their four commanderies on the soil of Wiman' s Ancient Choson in 108 B.C. must have familiarized the resident Koreans with Chinese and the Chinese script."
"The Han established 'four commanderies' (Chin. sijun, Kor. sagun) in the conquered territories of Wiman Chosŏn, The commanderies were named Lelang (Kor. Nangnang), Zhenfan (Kor. Chinbon), Lintun (Kor. Imdun), and Xuantu (Kor. Hyéna'o)."
"The Wei Ji (compiled 233–97) places the Yemaek in the Korean peninsula at the time of the Han commanderies in the first century BC, giving them a specifically Korean identity at least by that time."
"In 108 B.C. most of the Korean peninsula was divided into four Han commanderies, the most important of which was Lelang."
"Northeastwards Emperor Wu's forces conquered northern Korea in 108 b.c. and established four command headquarters there."
"For certain political and strategic reasons, it was conquered by the army of the Han emperor Wu Ti in 108 B.C. and its territory was divided into four Chün: Lo-lang (乐浪), Hsüan-tu (ݰ菟), Chen-fan (真番) and Lin-t'un (临屯)."
"Nangnang commandery centered around Pyeong'yang was established when Emperor Wu of Han China attacked Gojoseon in 108 BC and was under the rule of Wei from 238. Wei is the country that destroyed the Later Han dynasty."
  • Armstrong, Charles K. (1995), “Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State”, Korean Studies (University of Hawaii Press) 19: 12, doi:10.1353/ks.1995.0017 
"North Korean historiography from the 1970s onward has stressed the unique, even sui generis, nature of Korean civilization going back to Old Chosön, whose capital, Wanggömsöng, is now located in the Liao River basin in Manchuria rather than near Pyongyang. Nangnang, then, was not a Chinese commandery but a Korean kingdom, based in the area of Pyongyang."
"108 BC: Han armies invade Wiman Choson; Chinese commanderies are set up across the north of the peninsula"
"313-314 AD:Chinese commanderies of Lelang and Daifang fall to Koguryo and Paekche"
"The Chinese commanderies did not extend to the southern half of the peninsula, stretching perhaps as far south as the Han river at the greatest extent, but they did reach the northeast coast."
"He then divided the country into military districts, of which the most important was that of Lolang, or Laklang, with headquarters near the modern Pyongyang. Tomb excavations in this area have produced much evidence of the influence of Han civilization in northern Korea."
"The best known of these commanderies is Lelang, centered on the present city of Pyongyang, now the capital of North Korea."
"Under Emperor Wu-ti, Han China extended her influence into Korea, and in 108 B.C., the peninsula became a part of the Chinese Empire, with four dependent provinces under the Chinese charge."
"The Chinese emplaced three commanderies in Wiman Chosŏn territory, the chief of which was called Lo-lang (Nangnang in Korean)."
  • Meyer, Milton W. (1997). Asia: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 118. ISBN 978-0847680634. 
"In southern Manchuria, and northern and central Korea, the Chinese established four commanderies, which were subdivided into prefectures."
"The structure, administration and way of life of Lolang become real as they are viewed in the essentially non-Chinese setting in which that Chinese colony was placed."
"In 109 BC, the Emperor Wu-ti of the Han Dynasty conquered Ancient Choson in an attempt to protect his sensitive north-east border."
"The Han dynasty created four outposts in Korea to control that portion of its border."
"Horse and chariot burials from the 2nd century BCE which are earlier than the Chinese commandery of Lelang (called Nangnang in Korean), which was established in 108 BCE, have also been found in the vicinity of Pyongyang and thus would date from the time of Wiman Chosun."
"Wiman Choson fell in 108 B.C.E. to the Chinese Han dynasty (194 B.C.E.– 220 C.E.), which subsequently set up commanderies, including lelang commandery (Kor.: Nangnang, 108 B.C.E.–313 C.E.) in the former Choson territory."
"Chinese forces subsequently conquered the eastern half of the peninsula and made Lolang, near modern Pyongyang, the chief center of Chinese rule."
  • Hwang, Kyung Moon (2010). A History of Korea: An Episodic Narrativea. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-0230205451. 
"In the corridor between the peninsula and northeast China, the Chinese Han dynasty established four “commanderies” that ruled over parts of the peninsula and Manchuria, much as modern imperial powers governed their colonies."
  • Tennant, Charles Roger (1996). A history of Korea. Kegan Paul International. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. 
"Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Koguryŏ grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei occupied the North of China, of which the Murong clan took the Shandong area, moved up to the Liao, and in 341 sacked and burned the Koguryŏ capital at Hwando. They took away some thousands of prisoners to provive cheap labour to build more walls of their own, and in 346 went on to wreak even greater destruction on Puyŏ, hastening what seems to have been a continuing migration of its people into the north-eastern area of the peninsula, but Koguryŏ, though temporarily weakened, would soon"
"The territorial extent of the Four Chinese Commanderies seems to have been limited to the area north of the Han River."
"As its administrative center, the Chinese built what was inessence a Chinese city where the governor, officials, merchants, and Chinese colonists lived. Their way of life in general can be surmised from the investigation of remains unearthed at T'osong-ni, the site of the Lelang administrative center near modern P'yongyang. The variety of burial objects found in their wooden and brickwork tombs attests to the lavish life syle of these Chinese officials, merchants, and colonial overloads in Lelang's capital. ... The Chinese administration had considerable impact on the life of the native population and ultimatedly the very fabric of Gojoseon society became eroded."
"map of "Korea in the confederated Kingdoms period (ca. 1st-3rd centuries A.D)"
"Han Chinese built four commanderies, or local military units, to rule the peninsula as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lolang (Nangnang in Korean), near present-day P'yongyang. It is illustrative of the relentlessly different historiography practiced in North Korea and South Korea, as well as the projection backward of Korean nationalism practiced by both sides, that North Korean historians deny that the Lolang Commandery was centered in Korea. They place it northwest of the peninsula, possibly near Beijing, in order to de- emphasize China's influence on ancient Korean history."
"Ancient Korean history is comprised of the following states, Former Choson, Later Choson, Wiman Choson, the Four Commanderies, the Three Han states, Silla, Koguryo, Later Koguryo, Paekche, Later Paekche, and Parhae."


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