漢四郡

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朝鮮歷史
朝鮮の歴史
考古学 櫛目文土器時代 8000 BC-1500 BC
無文土器時代 1500 BC-300 AD
伝説 檀君朝鮮
箕子朝鮮
辰国 衛氏朝鮮
原三国 辰韓 弁韓 漢四郡
馬韓 楽浪郡
帯方郡


三国 伽耶
42-
562
百済
346-660
高句麗
37 BC-668
新羅
356-
統一
新羅
熊津安東都護府
統一新羅
676-892
安東
都護府
668-756
渤海
698
-926
後三国 新羅
-935

百済

892
-936
後高句麗
901
-918
女真
統一
王朝
高麗 918-
遼陽行省
東寧双城耽羅
元朝
高麗 1356-1392
李氏朝鮮 1392-1897
大韓帝国 1897-1910
近代 日本統治 1910-1945
現代 連合軍軍政期 1945-1948
大韓民国
1948-
朝鮮民主主義
人民共和国

1948-
Portal:朝鮮
満州の歴史
箕子朝鮮 東胡 濊貊
沃沮
粛慎
遼西郡 遼東郡
遼西郡 遼東郡
前漢 遼西郡 遼東郡 衛氏朝鮮 匈奴
漢四郡 夫余
後漢 遼西郡 烏桓 鮮卑 挹婁
遼東郡 高句麗
玄菟郡
昌黎郡 公孫度
遼東郡
玄菟郡
西晋 平州
慕容部 宇文部
前燕 平州
前秦 平州
後燕 平州
北燕
北魏 営州 契丹 庫莫奚 室韋
東魏 営州 勿吉
北斉 営州
北周 営州
柳城郡 靺鞨
燕郡
遼西郡
営州 松漠都督府 饒楽都督府 室韋都督府 安東都護府 渤海国 黒水都督府
五代十国 営州 契丹 渤海国
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上京路
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遼陽行省
遼東都司 奴児干都指揮使司
建州女真 海西女真 野人女真
満州
 

東三省
ロマノフ朝
中華民国
東三省
ソ連
極東
満州国
中華人民共和国
中国東北部
ロシア連邦
極東連邦管区/極東ロシア
中国朝鮮関係史
Portal:中国

漢四郡(かんのしぐん)は、朝鮮半島の中・西北部にあった衛氏朝鮮を滅ぼした前漢武帝紀元前108年に設置した楽浪郡真番郡臨屯郡紀元前107年に設置した玄菟郡(地方行政機構、植民地との見方も存在する[1][2][3])のことである。各郡の位置については諸説ある。朝鮮四郡(ちょうせんしぐん)ともいう[4]

中国王朝は紀元300年頃までおよそ400年もの間、朝鮮半島中部・北部を郡県により直接支配し、また朝鮮半島南部に対して間接統制を行った。漢四郡に先立って、紀元前128年に漢は蒼海郡を置いた。漢四郡のうち、真番郡と臨屯郡は早く廃され、玄菟郡は朝鮮半島から西に移ったが、204年には朝鮮半島に新たに帯方郡が置かれた。楽浪郡と帯方郡は313年まで存続した。

年表[編集]

  • 紀元前128年 - 漢が蒼海郡を設置。
  • 紀元前108年 - 漢が、衛氏朝鮮を滅ぼし、漢四郡(楽浪郡、真番郡、臨屯郡、玄菟郡)を置く。
  • 紀元前82年 - 真番郡、臨屯郡を廃する。
  • 紀元前75年 - 玄菟郡を西に移し、半島には楽浪郡だけとなる。
  • 204年 - 公孫氏が帯方郡を置く。
  • 238年 - 魏が公孫氏を滅ぼし、帯方郡を支配。
  • 313年 - 高句麗が楽浪郡を滅ぼし、帯方郡も滅びる。

異説[編集]

北朝鮮及び在野の韓国歴史学者は、朝鮮半島には古代から自主独立の国があったとする歴史観を掲げて[5][6]、漢四郡が朝鮮半島ではなく中国大陸の遼東遼西方面にあったとしている[7][8]李相龍は、漢四郡は「朝鮮」の領土ではなく遼東に位置していたという、申采浩金教獻朴殷植と共通の多くの主張を行った[9]。しかし、この学説は文献的にも考古学的にも問題があり、中国や日本やアメリカ(漢四郡#引用文献)の学界では全く認められていない。例えば、楽浪郡の所在地が現在の平壌の郊外、市街地とは大同江を挟んだ対岸にある楽浪土城(平壌市楽浪区域土城洞)にあったことに異論はない。なぜならば土塁で囲まれた東西700m、南北600mの遺構に当時のさまざまな遺物のほか、官印「楽浪太守章」の封泥(封印の跡)までもが出土しており、考古学的に明らかにされているからである。ただし、南北朝鮮の漢四郡否認論者は、これらの遺跡は後世の捏造だと主張している。今日、南北朝鮮で楽浪郡が帝国主義の偽造として悪魔化される理由は、これらは植民地時代に日本の歴史学者考古学者によって発見されたからである。その発見によって、漢王朝が平壌付近を統治しており、この中国の郡が朝鮮の文明の発展に大きな影響を与えた事が強調される[10]。北朝鮮が挑戦するまでは、楽浪郡は紀元前108年に古朝鮮を破った後に漢の武帝が確立した郡であったことは「普遍的に認められていた」[11]。北朝鮮の学者は、漢王朝のを扱うにあたり、それらを古朝鮮や高句麗の遺跡として再解釈している[12]。中国の漢に見られる物との否定できない類似性を持つ遺物のために、彼らは、それらが貿易と国際的な接触を通じて導入されたか、または偽造だとし、「決して遺物の朝鮮的特性を否定する根拠として解釈すべきではない」と提唱する[13]。北朝鮮はまた、楽浪は2つあったとし、漢は実は遼東半島遼河の楽浪を治めており、一方、平壌は紀元前3世紀から2世紀まで存在した「独立した朝鮮の国家」楽浪だったと言っている[14][15]。彼らによると、楽浪の伝統的な見方は、中国の中国至上主義者と日本帝国主義者によって拡大された[16]

漢四郡の変遷[編集]

参考文献[編集]

引用文献[編集]

"In 108 B.C.E. an emperor of China's Han dynasty sent troops to the empire's remotest border and set up four commanderies, or military outposts."
"Immediately after destroying Wiman Chosŏn, the Han empire established administrative units to rule large territories in the northern Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria."
  • Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 223. ISBN 9780549440369. 
"Lelang Commandery was crucial to understanding the early history of Korea, which lasted from 108 BCE to 313 CE around the P'yongyang area. However, because of its nature as a Han colony and the exceptional attention paid to it by Japanese colonial scholars for making claims of the innate heteronomy of Koreans, post 1945 Korean scholars intentionally avoided the issue of Lelang."
  • Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 215. ISBN 9780549440369. 
"Lelang (K. Nangnang) Commandery was crucial to understanding the early history of Korea, which lasted from 108 BCE to 313 CE around the P'yongyang area."
"But when Emperor Wu conquered Choson, all the small barbarian tribes in the northeastern region were incorporated into the established Han commanderies because of the overwhelming military might of Han China."
"Despite recent suggestions by North Korean scholars that Lelang was not a Chinese commandery, the traditional view will be adhered to here. Lelang was one of four commanderies newly instituted by the Han Dynasty in 108 BC in the former region of Chaoxian. Of these four commanderies, only two (Lelang and Xuantu) survived successive reorganizations; and it seems that even these had their headquarters relocated once or twice."
"When material evidence from the Han commandery site excavated during the colonial period began to be reinterpreted by Korean nationalist historians as the first full-fledged "foreign" occupation in Korean history, Lelang's location in the heart of the Korean peninsula became particularly irksome because the finds seemed to verify Japanese colonial theories concerning the dependency of Korean civilization on China."
"At present, the site of Lelang and surrounding ancient Han Chinese remains are situated in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang. Although North Korean scholars have continued to excavate Han dynasty tombs in the postwar period, they have interpreted them as manifestations of the Kochoson or the Koguryo kingdom."
  • Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (May 1981), “Reinterpreting Traditional History in North Korea”, The Journal of Asian Studies 40 (3): 509, doi:10.2307/2054553 .
"These items, they insist, must have been introduced into Korea through trade or other international contacts and "should not by any means be construed as a basis to deny the Korean characteristics of the artifacts" found in the P'yongyang area."
"Chinese forces subsequently conquered the eastern half of the peninsula and made lolang, near modern Pyongyang, the chief base for Chinese rule. Chinese sources recall how China used not only military force but also assassination and divide-and-conquer tactics to subdue Chosŏn and divide the territory into four commanderies."
"For the next four centuries a northwestern part of the Korean peninsula was directly incorporated in to the Chinese Empire.... The Taedong River basin, the area where the modern city of P'yongyang is located, became the center of the Lelang commandery."
"The way of life maintained by the elite at the capital in the P'yongyang area, which is known from the tombs and scattered archaeological remains, evinces a prosperous, refined, and very Chinese culture."
"The Chinese, having conquered Choson, set up four administrative units called commanderies. The Lelang commandery was located along the Ch'ongch'on and Tae­dong rivers from the coast to the interior highlands. Three other com­manderies were organized: Xuantu, Lintun, and Zhenfan. Lintun and originally Xuantu were centered on the east coast of northern Korea. Zhenfan was probably located in the region south of Lelang, although there is some uncertainty about this. After Emperor Wu's death in 87 BCE a retrenchment began under his successor, Emperor Chao (87-74 BCE). In 82 BCE Lintun was merged into Xuantu, and Zhenfan into Lelang. Around 75 BCE Xuantu was relocated most probably in the Tonghua region of Manchuria and parts of old Lintun merged into Lelang. Later a Daifang commandery was created south of Lelang in what was later Hwanghae Province in northern Korea. Lelang was the more populous and prosperous outpost of Chinese civilization."
"The Korean state was annexed by China early in the Han period, and in the four territories of Korea, Chinese command was established."
"Han China resumes its effort to subdue Korea, launching two military expeditions that bring much of the peninsula under Chinese control; it sets up four commanderies in conquered Korea."
"After a period of decline, Old Choson falls to Wiman, an exile from the Yan state in northern China. Wiman proves to be a strong ruler, but his ambitious program of expansion eventually brings him into conflict with the Han dynasty of China. The Han defeats Wiman Choson and establishes a protectorate over northern Korea in 108 b.c. Resistance to Chinese hegemony, however, is strong, and China reduces the territory under its active control to Nang-nang colony with an administrative center near modern Pyongyang."
"Chinese civilization had started to flow into the Korean Peninsula through Nang-nang. This was the only time in Korean history that China could establish its colonies in the central part of Korea, where occupation forces were stationed. The Han Empire not only occupied Korea, but expanded westward to Persia and Afghanistan."
"Lelang commandery, with its seat in modern Pyongyang, was the most important of the four."
"The Han Chinese triumph was possible because the political solidarity of Wiman Joseon, which was nothing more than a loose tribal confederation, was not centralized enough to hold back external invasion. In this region, Wudi established four prefectures: Lelang, Zhenfan, Lintun, and Xientu."
"As the Yen gave way in China to the Qin (221-207 B.C.) and the Han dynasties (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), Choson declined, and refugee populations migrated eastward. Out of this milieu, emerged Wiman, a man who assumed the kingship of Choson sometime between 194 and 180 B.C. The Kingdom of Wiman Choson melded Chinese influence, and under the Old Choson federated structure--apparently reinvigorated under Wiman--the state again expanded over hundreds of kilometers of territory. Its ambitions ran up against a Han invasion, however, and Wiman Choson fell in 108 B.C."
"From approximately 108 B. C. until 313, Lolang was a great center of Chinese statecraft, art, industry (including the mining of iron ore), and commerce. Lolang's influence was widespread; it attracted immigrants from China and exacted tribute from several states south of the Han River that patterned their civilization and government after Lolang."
"Historical accounts also emphasized the influence of the Chinese Han Commanderies, particulary the Lelang and northern Korean states (historically known as Kogury o and Ye), to rising social complexity in the south."
"Chinese commanderies at Lelang (modern Pyongyang) functioned as the political and military arm of Chinese dynasties, beginning with Han, as well as the major contact point between the advanced Chinese civilization and the local population."
"The latter, associated with Han China, are important, as their discovery permits us to infer the existence of relations between the Han commanderies and the Samhan societies."
"By the middle of the fourth century BCE, Yan had advanced into the coastal corridor of western Liaoning. Later, the Han fixed their border at the Liao River, which divides Liaoxi from Liaodong. Han attempts to penetrate further east culminated in the establishment of four Han commanderies (108–107 BCE), although only one, Lelang (K. Nangnang), was to survive for very long."
"These tombs are associated with the Lelang commandery, which was established by the Han dynasty of China, successor to the Qin. Han generals conquered the armies of Wiman's grandson Ugo and established control over the northern part of the Korean peninsula."
"Subsequently, the establishment by China's Han dynasty of their four commanderies on the soil of Wiman' s Ancient Choson in 108 B.C. must have familiarized the resident Koreans with Chinese and the Chinese script."
"The Han established 'four commanderies' (Chin. sijun, Kor. sagun) in the conquered territories of Wiman Chosŏn, The commanderies were named Lelang (Kor. Nangnang), Zhenfan (Kor. Chinbon), Lintun (Kor. Imdun), and Xuantu (Kor. Hyéna'o)."
"The Wei Ji (compiled 233–97) places the Yemaek in the Korean peninsula at the time of the Han commanderies in the first century BC, giving them a specifically Korean identity at least by that time."
"In 108 B.C. most of the Korean peninsula was divided into four Han commanderies, the most important of which was Lelang."
"Northeastwards Emperor Wu's forces conquered northern Korea in 108 b.c. and established four command headquarters there."
"For certain political and strategic reasons, it was conquered by the army of the Han emperor Wu Ti in 108 B.C. and its territory was divided into four Chün: Lo-lang (乐浪), Hsüan-tu (ݰ菟), Chen-fan (真番) and Lin-t'un (临屯)."
"Nangnang commandery centered around Pyeong'yang was established when Emperor Wu of Han China attacked Gojoseon in 108 BC and was under the rule of Wei from 238. Wei is the country that destroyed the Later Han dynasty."
  • Armstrong, Charles K. (1995), “Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State”, Korean Studies (University of Hawaii Press) 19: 12, doi:10.1353/ks.1995.0017 
"North Korean historiography from the 1970s onward has stressed the unique, even sui generis, nature of Korean civilization going back to Old Chosön, whose capital, Wanggömsöng, is now located in the Liao River basin in Manchuria rather than near Pyongyang. Nangnang, then, was not a Chinese commandery but a Korean kingdom, based in the area of Pyongyang."
"108 BC: Han armies invade Wiman Choson; Chinese commanderies are set up across the north of the peninsula"
"313-314 AD:Chinese commanderies of Lelang and Daifang fall to Koguryo and Paekche"
"The Chinese commanderies did not extend to the southern half of the peninsula, stretching perhaps as far south as the Han river at the greatest extent, but they did reach the northeast coast."
"He then divided the country into military districts, of which the most important was that of Lolang, or Laklang, with headquarters near the modern Pyongyang. Tomb excavations in this area have produced much evidence of the influence of Han civilization in northern Korea."
"The best known of these commanderies is Lelang, centered on the present city of Pyongyang, now the capital of North Korea."
"Under Emperor Wu-ti, Han China extended her influence into Korea, and in 108 B.C., the peninsula became a part of the Chinese Empire, with four dependent provinces under the Chinese charge."
"The Chinese emplaced three commanderies in Wiman Chosŏn territory, the chief of which was called Lo-lang (Nangnang in Korean)."
  • Meyer, Milton W. (1997). Asia: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 118. ISBN 978-0847680634. 
"In southern Manchuria, and northern and central Korea, the Chinese established four commanderies, which were subdivided into prefectures."
"The structure, administration and way of life of Lolang become real as they are viewed in the essentially non-Chinese setting in which that Chinese colony was placed."
"In 109 BC, the Emperor Wu-ti of the Han Dynasty conquered Ancient Choson in an attempt to protect his sensitive north-east border."
"The Han dynasty created four outposts in Korea to control that portion of its border."
"Horse and chariot burials from the 2nd century BCE which are earlier than the Chinese commandery of Lelang (called Nangnang in Korean), which was established in 108 BCE, have also been found in the vicinity of Pyongyang and thus would date from the time of Wiman Chosun."
"Wiman Choson fell in 108 B.C.E. to the Chinese Han dynasty (194 B.C.E.– 220 C.E.), which subsequently set up commanderies, including lelang commandery (Kor.: Nangnang, 108 B.C.E.–313 C.E.) in the former Choson territory."
"Chinese forces subsequently conquered the eastern half of the peninsula and made Lolang, near modern Pyongyang, the chief center of Chinese rule."
  • Hwang, Kyung Moon (2010). A History of Korea: An Episodic Narrativea. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-0230205451. 
"In the corridor between the peninsula and northeast China, the Chinese Han dynasty established four “commanderies” that ruled over parts of the peninsula and Manchuria, much as modern imperial powers governed their colonies."
  • Tennant, Charles Roger (1996). A history of Korea. Kegan Paul International. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. 
"Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Koguryŏ grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei occupied the North of China, of which the Murong clan took the Shandong area, moved up to the Liao, and in 341 sacked and burned the Koguryŏ capital at Hwando. They took away some thousands of prisoners to provive cheap labour to build more walls of their own, and in 346 went on to wreak even greater destruction on Puyŏ, hastening what seems to have been a continuing migration of its people into the north-eastern area of the peninsula, but Koguryŏ, though temporarily weakened, would soon"
"The territorial extent of the Four Chinese Commanderies seems to have been limited to the area north of the Han River."
"As its administrative center, the Chinese built what was inessence a Chinese city where the governor, officials, merchants, and Chinese colonists lived. Their way of life in general can be surmised from the investigation of remains unearthed at T'osong-ni, the site of the Lelang administrative center near modern P'yongyang. The variety of burial objects found in their wooden and brickwork tombs attests to the lavish life syle of these Chinese officials, merchants, and colonial overloads in Lelang's capital. ... The Chinese administration had considerable impact on the life of the native population and ultimatedly the very fabric of Gojoseon society became eroded."
"map of "Korea in the confederated Kingdoms period (ca. 1st-3rd centuries A.D)"
"Han Chinese built four commanderies, or local military units, to rule the peninsula as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lolang (Nangnang in Korean), near present-day P'yongyang. It is illustrative of the relentlessly different historiography practiced in North Korea and South Korea, as well as the projection backward of Korean nationalism practiced by both sides, that North Korean historians deny that the Lolang Commandery was centered in Korea. They place it northwest of the peninsula, possibly near Beijing, in order to de- emphasize China's influence on ancient Korean history."
"Ancient Korean history is comprised of the following states, Former Choson, Later Choson, Wiman Choson, the Four Commanderies, the Three Han states, Silla, Koguryo, Later Koguryo, Paekche, Later Paekche, and Parhae."

関連項目[編集]

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ 鳥越憲三郎は、「前漢武帝が元封三年に朝鮮半島の北部を植民地として楽浪・臨屯・玄菟・真番の四郡を設置」と記している(『人物』 中西進王勇編、大修館書店〈日中文化交流史叢書 第10巻〉、1996年10月。ISBN 4-469-13050-8)。
  2. ^ 渡辺延志朝日新聞記者は、「楽浪郡は前漢が前108年に設置した植民地(渡辺延志 (2009年3月19日). “紀元前1世紀の楽浪郡木簡発見”. 朝日新聞. http://www.asahi.com/culture/news_culture/TKY200903190125.html 2011年6月1日閲覧。 )」「中国の前漢が朝鮮半島に置いた植民地・楽浪郡(渡辺延志 (2010年5月29日). “最古級の論語、北朝鮮から 古代墓から出土の竹簡に記述(1/2ページ)”. 朝日新聞. http://www.asahi.com/culture/news_culture/TKY201005280277.html 2011年6月1日閲覧。 )」「漢字が植民地経営のために、朝鮮半島にまで広がっていた(渡辺延志 (2010年5月29日). “最古級の論語、北朝鮮から 古代墓から出土の竹簡に記述(2/2ページ)”. 朝日新聞. http://www.asahi.com/culture/news_culture/TKY201005280277_01.html 2011年6月1日閲覧。 )」と説明している。
  3. ^ 武光誠は、「魏志倭人伝は、朝鮮半島にあったの植民地、帯方郡から邪馬台国にいたる道筋を詳しく記している」と述べている(武光誠「古代史最大の謎邪馬台国の21世紀的課題」『月刊現代』2008年6月号 87頁)。
  4. ^ 朝鮮四郡 日本大百科全書コトバンク
  5. ^ 渡辺延志 (2009年3月19日). “紀元前1世紀の楽浪郡木簡発見(1/2ページ)”. 朝日新聞. http://www.asahi.com/culture/news_culture/TKY200903190125.html 2011年6月3日閲覧。 
  6. ^ 渡辺延志 (2009年3月19日). “紀元前1世紀の楽浪郡木簡発見(2/2ページ)”. 朝日新聞. http://www.asahi.com/culture/news_culture/TKY200903190125_01.html 2011年6月3日閲覧。 
  7. ^ 朝鮮史をわい曲する「新しい歴史教科書」”. 朝鮮新報 (2006年3月25日). 2008年5月24日閲覧。
  8. ^ 中国の東北工程への反論、丹斎先生が70年前に準備”. 朝鮮日報 (2006年11月11日). 2008年5月24日閲覧。
  9. ^ Han, Young-woo (1992), “The Establishment and Development of Nationalist History”, Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 5: 76、86 
  10. ^ Pai, Hyung Il (2000), Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories, Harvard University Asia Center, pp. 127–129 
  11. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 23–25 
  12. ^ Pai, Hyung Il (2000), Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories, Harvard University Asia Center, pp. 127–129 
  13. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 509 
  14. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 23–25 
  15. ^ Armstrong, Charles K. (1995), “Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State”, Korean Studies (University of Hawaii Press) 19: 11–12 
  16. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), “An Outline History of Korean Historiography”, Korean Studies 4: 23–25