ゾーニング (都市計画)

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マケドニア共和国スコピエ市の全体計画図のゾーニング計画。異なる都市計画上の区域(ゾーン)が異なる色で表現されている。

ゾーニング (英語: zoning) は、基礎自治体の領域内に線引きし、土地利用について一定の許可や禁止で条件づけながら、住宅地域工業地域など、いくつかの区域 (zone) に分割していく過程である[1]

概要[編集]

どの区域にあるかによって、そこにおける特定の開発行為に対して開発許可が下りるか否かが決まる。ゾーニングは、様々な形で、もっぱら特定の土地利用のみを認めることもあれば、土地利用に条件を付けていく場合もある。場合によっては、土地の面積や形状、さらに建物の形や大きさに条件を付けることもある。こうした指針は、都市の成長と発展を誘導する目的で設定される[2][3]

然るべき当局によって分割された土地では、区域によって様々な土地利用が許可される[4]。このため、多くの先進諸国において、ゾーニングは、地方政府都市計画の手段として、土地利用計画英語版の技法を用いている[5][6][7]。「ゾーニング (zoning)」という表現は、土地利用、形状、開発計画やその適合性などによって、地図上に区域/ゾーン (zone) を線引きしていく行為に由来している。法律上、ゾーニング計画は、然るべき手続きを経て条例として発効する。一般的なゾーイニング条例などは、その多くが子供たちが通う学校周囲に、大人向けの各商業施設(販売、ギャンブル、性的娯楽など)の設置を制限するものとして知られている。カナダドイツなど、一部の国々においては、ゾーニング計画は、より上位の地方政府(地方、州など)による計画や政策に従わなければならない。

ゾーニングの類型には非常に大きな多様性があり、建物の形状や街路と建物の位置関係に規制に焦点を当てた形態規制条例英語版と称されるものもあれば、土地利用の区分を重視する利用規制や、これらを折衷したものもある。同様に、特定の区域の利用目的を決めてしまうという都市計画上の手法も、古代以来数多くの都市で採用されてきた。

範囲[編集]

ゾーニングの主な目的は、互換性があると考えられる使用を分離することです。実際には、ゾーニングは、新しい開発が既存の用途に干渉するのを防ぎ、街の構造を維持するためにも使用されます。しかし、それを行うための効果的な方法であるとは限りません。[8] ゾーニングは一般的に都道府県や市区町村などの地方自治体によって管理されていますが、ゾーニング体制の性質は都道府県などによって決定または制限されるか、または法律を有効にすることによって決定される場合があります。[9]オーストラリアでは、連邦政府の管理下にある土地は、州の計画管理の対象ではありません。米国と他の連邦諸国は似ています。フランスとドイツのゾーニングと都市計画は、国または連邦のコードによって規制されています。ドイツの場合、このコードにはゾーニング計画の内容と法的手続きが含まれます

ゾーニングには、特定のロット(オープンスペース、住宅、農業、商業、産業など)で許容される活動の種類、それらの活動を行うことができる密度(低密度住宅から)の規制が含まれる場合があります。高層マンションなどの高密度に一戸建て住宅など、建物の高さ、空間構造物の量、ロット上の建物の位置(挫折)、多くのスペースの種類の割合など美しいスペース、不浸透面、交通レーン、駐車場が提供されているかどうか。ドイツでは、ゾーニングには、非常に特定の緑地と補償規制を伴う影響評価が含まれており、建築設計に関する規制が含まれる場合があります。個々の計画システムが規制体制にゾーニングをどのように組み込むかの詳細は異なりますが、意図は常に似ています。たとえば、オーストラリアのビクトリア州では、土地利用区域は計画スキームオーバーレイのシステムと組み合わされ、任意の場所で望ましい都市の成果に影響を与える要因の多重性を考慮します。

ほとんどのゾーニング・システムには、問題のプロパティの特定の性質によって引き起こされるいくつかの認識された困難のために、差異(ゾーニング・ルールの例外)を付与する手順があります。

起源[編集]

The origins of zoning districts can be traced back to antiquity. The ancient walled city was the predecessor for classifying and regulating land, based on use. Outside the city walls were the undesirable functions, which were usually based on noise and smell; that was also where the poorest people lived. The space between the walls is where unsanitary and dangerous activities occurred such as butchering, waste disposal, and brick-firing. Within the wall were civic and religious places, where the majority of people lived.[10]

Beyond the simple distinction between urban and non-urban land, most ancient cities further classified land type and use inside their walls. That was practiced in many regions of the world. For example, in China during the Zhou Dynasty (1046 – 256 BC), in India during the Vedic Era (1500 – 500 BC), and in the military camps that spread throughout the Roman Empire (31 BC – 476 AD). As the residential districts made up the majority of the city, that early form of districting was usually along ethnic and occupational divides; generally, class or status diminished outwards from the city center. One legal form for enforcing it was the caste system.[11]

While space was carved out for important public institutions, places of worship, markets and squares, there is a major distinction between cities of antiquity and cities of today. Throughout antiquity and up until the onset of the Industrial Revolution (1760 - 1840), most work took place within the home. Therefore, residential areas also functioned as places of labor, production, and commerce. The definition of home was tied to the definition of economy, which caused a much greater mixing of uses within the residential quarters of cities.[12]

Throughout the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, cultural and socio-economic shifts led to the rapid increase in the enforcement in and the invention of urban regulations.[13] The shifts were informed by a new scientific rationality, the advent of mass production and complex manufacturing, and the subsequent onset of urbanization. Industry leaving the home was one major factor in reshaping industrial cities.

Overcrowding, pollution, and the urban squalor associated with factories were major concerns that led city officials and planners to consider the need for functional separation of uses. It was in France, Germany, and Britain that the first pseudo-zoning was invented to prevent polluting industries to be built in residential areas. It was Germany that invented modern zoning, in the late-19th century.[14]

タイプ[編集]

土地利用ゾーニング[編集]

Basically, urban zones fall into one of five major categories: residential, mixed residential-commercial, commercial, industrial and spatial (e. g. power plants, sports complexes, airports, shopping malls etc.). Each category can have a number of sub-categories, for example, within the commercial category there may be separate zones for small-retail, large retail, office use, lodging and others, while industrial may be subdivided into heavy manufacturing, light assembly and warehouse uses. In Germany, each category has a designated limit for noise emissions (not part of the building code, but federal emissions code).

たとえば、米国またはカナダでは、住宅地域に次のサブカテゴリを含めることができる。

  1. Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including: boarding houses, hotels, motels
  2. Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including: apartment houses, boarding houses, convents, dormitories.
  3. Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-4 or I, including: buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units, adult care facilities for five or fewer persons for less than 24 hours.
  4. Residential occupancies where the buildings are arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities including more than five but not more than 16 occupants.

Conditional zoning allows for increased flexibility and permits municipalities to respond to the unique features of a particular land use application. Uses which might be disallowed under current zoning, such as a school or a community center can be permitted via conditional use zoning.

人口密度規制の経済的説明[編集]

Rothwell and Massey suggests homeowners and business interests are the two key players in density regulations that emerge from a political economy.[15] They propose that in older states where rural jurisdictions are primarily composed of homeowners, it is the narrow interests of homeowners to block development because tax rates are lower in rural areas, and taxation is more likely to fall on the median homeowner. Business interests are unable to counteract the homeowners' interests in rural areas because business interests are weaker and business ownership is rarely controlled by people living outside the community. This translates into rural communities that have a tendency to resist development by using density regulations to make business opportunities less attractive.

使い捨てゾーニング[編集]

使い捨てゾーニング規制の例(ウィニペグ都市圏地図、1947年)

Single-use zoning, also known as Euclidean zoning, is a tool of urban planning that controls land uses in a city. The earliest forms of single-use zoning were practiced in New York city in the early 1900s, to guide its rapid population growth from immigration.[16] Land uses were divided into residential, commercial and industrial areas, now referred to as zones or zoning districts in cities. Single-use zoning became known as Euclidean zoning because of a court case in Euclid, Ohio, which established its constitutionality, Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co. 272 U.S. 365 (1926).

Euclidean zoning has been the dominant system of zoning in much of North America since its first implementation.[17] The predictable model for dividing land use patterns generated by the Euclidean system have been charged by many commentators as playing a direct role in a number of problems in land use planning evident in the United States and elsewhere. Single-use zoning is a basic model that has not evolved to create appropriate solutions for the increasing complexity of social, political and environmental challenges in cities.[18]

Problems affiliated with Euclidean-style zoning policy include urban sprawl, urban decay, environmental pollution, racial and socioeconomic segregation, negative economic impacts and an overall reduced quality of life.[19][20] Land use regulations associated with a high separation of land uses have also been criticized as being fraught with legal obstacles to rehabilitating neighbourhoods affected by the aforementioned problems [19] (such efforts are often referred to as urban rehabilitation or urban renewal).

Euclidean zoning represents a functionalist way of thinking that uses mechanistic principles to conceive of the city as a fixed machine. This conception is in opposition to the view of the city as a continually evolving organism or living system, as first espoused by the German urbanist Hans Reichow.

批判[編集]

国ごとのゾーニング法[編集]

アメリカ合衆国[編集]

米国タラハシー中心部のゾーニング計画。

Under the police power rights, state governments may exercise over private real property. With this power, special laws and regulations have long been made restricting the places where particular types of business can be carried on. In 1904, Los Angeles established the nation's first land-use restrictions for a portion of the city.[21] [22] In 1916, New York City adopted the first zoning regulations to apply citywide as a reaction to The Equitable Building which towered over the neighboring residences, diminishing the availability of sunshine. These laws set the pattern for zoning in the rest of the country. New York City went on to develop ever more complex regulations, including floor-area ratio regulations, air rights and others for specific neighborhoods.

The constitutionality of zoning ordinances was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1926 case Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co. Among large populated cities in the United States, Houston is unique in having no zoning ordinances.[23] Rather, land use is regulated by other means.[24]

スケール[編集]

Early zoning practices were subtle and often debated. Some claim the practices started in the 1920s[25] while others suggest the birth of zoning occurred in New York in 1916.[26] Both of these examples for the start of zoning, however, were urban cases. Zoning becomes an increasing legal force as it continues to expand in its geographical range through its introduction in other urban centres and use in larger political and geographical boundaries. Regional zoning was the next step in increased geographical size of areas under zoning laws.[27] A major difference between urban zoning and regional zoning was that "regional areas consequently seldom bear direct relationship to arbitrary political boundaries".[27] This form of zoning also included rural areas which was counter-intuitive to the theory that zoning was a result of population density.[27] Finally, zoning also expanded again but back to a political boundary again with state zoning.[27]

タイプ[編集]

Zoning codes have evolved over the years as urban planning theory has changed, legal constraints have fluctuated, and political priorities have shifted. The various approaches to zoning can be divided into four broad categories: Euclidean, Performance, Incentive, and form-based.

Named for the type of zoning code adopted in the town of Euclid, Ohio, and approved in a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.[28] Euclidean zoning codes are the most prevalent in the United States.[29] Euclidean zoning is characterized by the segregation of land uses into specified geographic districts and dimensional standards stipulating limitations on development activity within each type of district. Advantages include relative effectiveness, ease of implementation, long-established legal precedent, and familiarity. However, Euclidean zoning has received criticism for its lack of flexibility and institutionalization of now-outdated planning theory.

Also known as "effects-based planning", performance zoning uses performance-based or goal-oriented criteria to establish review parameters for proposed development projects. Performance zoning is intended to provide flexibility, rationality, transparency and accountability, avoiding the arbitrariness of the Euclidean approach and better accommodating market principles and private property rights with environmental protection. Difficulties included a requirement for a high level of discretionary activity on the part of the supervising authority. Performance zoning has not been widely adopted in the USA.

First implemented in Chicago and New York City, incentive zoning is intended to provide a reward-based system to encourage development that meets established urban development goals.[30] Typically, the method establishes a base level of limitations and a reward scale to entice developers to incorporate the desired development criteria. Incentive zoning allows a high degree of flexibility, but can be complex to administer.

Form-based codes offer considerably more governmental latitude in building uses and form than do Euclidean codes. Form-based zoning regulates not the type of land use, but the form that land use may take. For instance, form-based zoning in a dense area may insist on low setbacks, high density, and pedestrian accessibility. FBCs are designed to directly respond to the physical structure of a community in order to create more walkable and adaptable environments.[31]

レセプション[編集]

カナダ[編集]

In Canada, land-use control is a provincial responsibility deriving from the constitutional authority over property and civil rights. This authority had been granted to the provinces under the British North America Acts of 1867 and was carried forward in the Constitution Act, 1982. The zoning power relates to real property, or land and the improvements constructed thereon that become part of the land itself (in Québec, immeubles). The provinces empowered the municipalities and regions to control the use of land within their boundaries. There are provisions for control of land use in unorganized areas of the provinces. Provincial tribunals are the ultimate authority for appeals and reviews.[32]

イギリス[編集]

The United Kingdom does not use zoning as a technique for controlling land use. British land use control began its modern phase after the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947. Rather than dividing municipal maps into land use zones, English planning law places all development under the control of local and regional governments, effectively abolishing the ability to develop land by-right. However, existing development allows land use by-right as long as the use does not constitute a change in the type of land use. A property owner must apply to change land use type of any existing building, and such changes must be consistent with the local and regional land use plans. Development control or planning control is the element of the United Kingdom's system of town and country planning through which local government regulates land use and new building. It relies on a discretionary "plan-led system" whereby development plans are formed and the public consulted. Subsequent development requires planning permission, which will be granted or refused with reference to the development plan as a material consideration.[33]

The plan does not provide specific guidance on what type of buildings will be allowed in a given location, rather it provides general principals for development and goals for the management of urban change. Because planning committees (made up of directly elected local councillors) or in some cases planning officers themselves (via delegated decisions) have discretion on each application for development or change of use made, the system is considered a 'discretionary' one.

There are 421 Local Planning Authorities (LPAs) in the United Kingdom. Generally they are the local borough or district council or a unitary authority. Development involving mining, minerals or waste disposal matters is dealt with by county councils in non-metropolitan areas. Within national parks, it is the national park authority that determines planning applications.

In England, land uses are broadly categorized into 4 Use Order Classes. Class A covers shops and other retail premises such as banks and restaurants, Class B includes workshops, factories and warehouses, Class C are residential uses and Class D are non-residential institutions, assembly and recreational uses. Each class includes subclasses that define uses in greater specificity.

オーストラリア[編集]

The legal framework for land use zoning in Australia is established by States and Territories, hence each State or Territory has different zoning rules. Land use zones are generally defined at local government level, and most often called Planning Schemes. In reality, however in all cases the state governments have an absolute ability to overrule the local decision-making. There are administrative appeal processes such as VCAT to challenge decisions.

州/準州 計画フレームワーク 土地利用規制
首都特別地域 テリトリープラン2008 土地利用ポリシー
NT 計画法 計画スキーム
NSW 1979年環境計画および評価法 地域環境計画(LEP)
クイーンズランド州 2009年持続可能な計画法は廃止。2016年計画法 計画スキーム
SA 1993年開発法 開発計画
TAS 1993年土地利用計画および承認法 計画スキーム
VIC 1987年計画および環境法 計画スキーム
西オーストラリア 2005年計画開発法 計画スキーム

Statutory planning otherwise known as town planning, development control or development management, refers to the part of the planning process that is concerned with the regulation and management of changes to land use and development.[34] Planning and zoning have a great political dimension, with governments often criticized for favouring developers; also nimbyism is very prevalent.

ニュージーランド[編集]

New Zealand's planning system is grounded in effects-based Performance Zoning under the Resource Management Act.

シンガポール[編集]

The framework for governing land uses in Singapore is administered by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) through the Master Plan.[35] The Master Plan is a statutory document divided into two sections: the plans and the Written Statement. The plans show the land use zoning allowed across Singapore, while the Written Statement provides a written explanation of the zones available and their allowed uses.

日本[編集]

地区は12の使用ゾーンに分類され [36] 各ゾーンは建物の形状と使用許可を決定する。建物の形状は、許容される床面積比と高さのゾーン制限によって制御される(絶対的な条件、隣接する建物や道路との関係で) [37] 。これらの制御は、建物間および道路上で十分な光と換気を可能にすることを目的としており [38] ゾーン は使い捨てのゾーニングの代わりに、許可される「最も激しい」使用で定義。高度利用は許可されるが、利用度の低いゾーンでは低層利用のみの許可 [39]

カテゴリー 説明
カテゴリー1特別低層住宅地 低層住宅用。

これらの建物内で許可されている用途には、小さな店、オフィス、小学校および高校が含まれます。

カテゴリー2特別低層住宅地 上記の許可された用途の低層住宅ビルと、最大150m2の床面積を持つ店舗ビル向け
カテゴリー1中高層向け住宅地 病院のある中高層の住宅用建物、大学の建物、および床面積500m2までの店舗用建物
カテゴリー2中高層向け住宅地 カテゴリー1中高層向け住宅地区と同じ、ただし1,500m2までの店舗とオフィスビルが許可
カテゴリー1の住宅地 床面積が最大3,000m2の店舗、オフィス、ホテルの建物、および最大50m2の自動車修理店など、他の許可された建物がある住宅向け
カテゴリー2の住宅ゾーン: カラオケボックスが許可され、このゾーンに建物のサイズ制限がなくなったことを除いて、カテゴリ1の住宅ゾーンと同じ
準居住区 主に住宅に指定され、車両関連の道路施設が導入

カテゴリ2住宅ゾーンと同じ許可された用途で、劇場、レストラン、店舗、および10,000 m2を超える床面積と倉庫を備えたその他の娯楽施設が追加されている

近隣商業ゾーン 地域ベースの毎日のショッピング活動のための地区

300m2までの面積の自動修理店を追加した、準居住ゾーンと同じ許可された用途。

商業ゾーン 銀行、映画館、デパート向け

近隣の商業地区と同じ許可された用途で、公衆浴場を追加

準産業 軽工業およびサービス施設向け

環境を悪化させる危険性のある工場を追加した商業ゾーンと同じ許可された用途。

工業地帯 工場向けに指定。

住居やショッピングは建設できますが、学校、病院、ホテルは許可されません

産業専用 工場向けに指定。工場以外での使用はすべて許可されない

フィリピン[編集]

The zoning system in the Philippines is explained in the Zoning Ordinance laid out by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB), and the cities and municipalities are responsible for regulating land use through ordinances created by each local government unit. The Philippine zoning system is divided into 11 types based on density and usage, and emphasizes the most suitable use and orderliness of the community. Definition of each density may differ between the ordinances of the local government units concerned, so one municipality may define a light density residential zone to allow 4-storey buildings, while another may only permit 2-storey buildings.[40]

タイプ 説明
居住地 意図するか、主に住宅に使用されます。低密度、中密度、または高密度の領域に分割
社交的な住宅 主にスラム居住者などの恵まれない市民の居住が目的
商業地 ショップ、オフィス、ビジネス向けです。低密度、中密度、または高密度の領域に分割
産業用 産業施設向けです。軽度、中度、または重度の使用領域に分割
制度的 制度上の施設を対象。場合によっては一般的または特別な使用領域に分割される
農業用 農業、養殖、および牧草地を対象
農業産業 統合された農業および製造機能を対象
森林 林業を対象
公園およびその他のレクリエーション 娯楽や自然のコミュニティへの統合の場所を対象
水域 地方自治体の水域(海域および湖)、河川、小川を含む
観光 観光活動専用のエリア

フランス[編集]

In France, the Code of Urbanism (Code de L'Urbanisme), a national law, guides regional and local planning and outlines procedures for obtaining building permits.[41] Unlike England where planners must use their discretion to allow use or building type changes, private development in France is permitted as long as the developer follows the legally-binding regulations.[41] Zoning in French cities generally allow many types of uses. The key differences between zones are based on the density of each use on a site.[41] For example, a residential zone may have the same permissible uses as a mixed use zone. However, the proportion of non-residential uses in the residential zone would be less than in the mixed use zone.

関連項目[編集]

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ Lamar, Anika (December 1, 2015). “Zoning as Taxidermy: Neighborhood Conservation Districts and the Regulation of Aesthetics”. Indiana Law Journal. 
  2. ^ Urban Stormwater Management in the United States. National Academy of Sciences. (2009). 
  3. ^ Hodge, Gerald (2014). Planning Canadian Communities. Toronto: Thomson. pp. 388–390. ISBN 978-0-17-650982-8. 
  4. ^ Thomas, Eileen Mitchell (2006年2月7日). “Zoning”. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2015年10月30日閲覧。
  5. ^ E.g., Lefcoe, George, "The Regulation of Superstores: The Legality of Zoning Ordinances Emerging from the Skirmishes between Wal-Mart and the United Food and Commercial Workers Union" (April 2005). USC Law, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 05-12; and USC Law and Economics Research Paper No. 05-12. Available at SSRN or [10.2139/ssrn.10.2139/ssrn.712801 DOI]
  6. ^ Town and Country Planning Act 1990
  7. ^ (ドイツ語) BMVBS - Startseite. Bmvbs.de. Retrieved on 2013-07-19.
  8. ^ Sharifi, Ayyoob; Chiba, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Kohei; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Murayama, Akito. “Can master planning control and regulate urban growth in Vientiane, Laos?”. Landscape and Urban Planning 131: 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.07.014. 
  9. ^ E.g., Maryland Code Article 66B, § 2.01(b) grants zoning powers to the City of Baltimore, while § 2.01(c) limits the grant of powers. By contrast, the New Jersey Municipal Land Use Law grants uniform zoning powers (with uniform limitations) to all municipalities in that state.
  10. ^ Hirt, Sonia A.. Zoned in the USA: the origins and implications of American land-use regulation. 
  11. ^ Hirt, Sonia A.. Zoned in the USA: the origins and implications of American land-use regulation. 
  12. ^ Arendt, Hannah (1958). The Human Condition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-02598-8. 
  13. ^ Hirt, Sonia A.. Zoned in the USA: the origins and implications of American land-use regulation. 
  14. ^ Talen, Emily (2012). City Rules: How Urban Regulations Affect Urban Form. Island Press. ISBN 978-1-59726-692-5. 
  15. ^ Rothwell, Jonathan T. and Massey, Douglas S. (2009) "The Effect of Density Zoning on Racial Segregation in U.S. Urban Areas" Urban Affairs Review. Volume 4, Number 6, pp. 779-806
  16. ^ Elliot, Donald (2012). A Better Way to Zone : Ten Principles to Create More Livable Cities. Island Press. 
  17. ^ Julian Conrad Juergensmeyer; Thomas E. Roberts (1998). LAND USE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT REGULATION LAW § 4.2, at 80. ISBN 978-1634593069. "in 1916 New York became the first city to implement this type of zoning law, later upheld in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 U.S. 365 (1926). “Operating from the premise that everything has its place, [Euclidean] zoning is the comprehensive division of a city into different use zones.”" 
  18. ^ Elliot, Donald (2012). A Better Way to Zone : Ten Principles to Create More Livable Cities. Island Press. 
  19. ^ a b Eliza Hall (2006). Divide and sprawl, decline and fall: A comparative critique of Euclidean zoning. U. Pitt. L. Rev. p. 68. https://lawreview.law.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/lawreview/article/view/77. 
  20. ^ Jay Wickersham (2001). Jane Jacob’s Critique of Zoning: From Euclid to Portland and Beyond. 28 B.C. ENVTL. AFF. L. REV. 547, 557. http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1199&context=ealr. 
  21. ^ History of Planning”. Urban  Planning: Los Angeles. 20190914閲覧。
  22. ^ Ordinance #9774 Residential Districts”. 20190914閲覧。
  23. ^ Houston Chronicle, 12-10, 2007”. 20190914閲覧。
  24. ^ Zoning Without Zoning”. Planetizen - Urban Planning News, Jobs, and Education. 20190914閲覧。
  25. ^ Rothwell, Jonathan T. and Massey, Douglas S. (2010) "Density Zoning and Class Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas" Social Science Quarterly. Volume 91, Issue 5, pp.1123-1141
  26. ^ Natoli, Salvatore J. (1971) "Zoning and the Development of Urban Land Use Patterns" Economic Geography. Volume 47, Number 2, pp. 171-184
  27. ^ a b c d Whitnall, Gordon (1931) "History of Zoning" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Volume 155, Part 2, pp.1-14
  28. ^ 272 U.S. 365, 71 L.Ed. 303, 47 S.Ct. 114 (1926).
  29. ^ American Institute of Architects (2017). The architecture student's handbook of professional practice. Hoboken: Wiley. pp. 509. ISBN 9781118738955. "Euclidean zoning is the most prevalent form of zoning in the United States, and thus is most familiar to planners and design professionals." 
  30. ^ Residential Investment Property Term - Zoning | Commercial Real Estate Loan. Webvest.info. Retrieved on 2013-07-19.
  31. ^ http://plannersweb.com/wp-content/uploads/2001/04/265.pdf
  32. ^ Thomas (2006年2月7日). “Zoning”. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2015年10月30日閲覧。
  33. ^ Hirt, Sonia A. (2014). Zoned in the USA: The Origins and Implications of American Land-Use Regulation. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 63 – 71. 
  34. ^ Gleeson B. and Low N., Australian Urban Planning: New Challenges, New Agendas, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, 2000.
  35. ^ URA Master Plan 2008 website
  36. ^ Introduction to Land use Planning System in Japan”. Ministry of Land Use, Transport and Infrastructure, Japan (2003年1月). 20190914閲覧。
  37. ^ Introduction to Land use Planning System in Japan”. Ministry of Land Use, Transport and Infrastructure, Japan (2003年1月). 20190914閲覧。
  38. ^ Introduction to Land use Planning System in Japan”. Ministry of Land Use, Transport and Infrastructure, Japan (2003年1月). 20190914閲覧。
  39. ^ Introduction to Land use Planning System in Japan”. Ministry of Land Use, Transport and Infrastructure, Japan (2003年1月). 20190914閲覧。
  40. ^ 4.15. Zoning Ordinance”. Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (2007年11月26日). 2018年1月15日閲覧。
  41. ^ a b c Hirt, Sonia A.. Zoned in the USA: the origins and implications of American land-use regulation. 

関連文献[編集]

  • Bassett, E.M. The master plan, with a discussion of the theory of community land planning legislation. New York: Russell Sage foundation, 1938.
  • Bassett, E. M. Zoning. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1940
  • Hirt, Sonia. Zoned in the USA: The Origins and Implications of American Land-Use Regulation (Cornell University Press, 2014) 245 pp. online review
  • Stephani, Carl J. and Marilyn C. ZONING 101, originally published in 1993 by the National League of Cities, now available in a Third Edition, 2012.

外部リンク[編集]