相互理解可能性

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相互理解可能性 (mutual intelligibility) とは、言語学において、異なってはいるが関連性のある複数の言語のそれぞれの話者が、計画的な勉強や並外れた努力無しに互いの言語を容易に理解できるとき、その言語間に存在しているとみなせる関係性のことである。相互理解性相互了解性などとも。この性質は言語と方言を区別する基準の一つとして用いられることもあるが、これに関しては社会言語学的な要素も重要である。

言語間の理解可能性 (intelligibility) は非対称でありうる。すなわち、ある言語話者の他の言語への理解度が、その他の言語話者の、先の言語話者の言語への理解度を上回ることもありうる。この二方向の理解可能性が相対的に対称的であるとき、「相互の(理解可能性)」(mutual) と特徴付けられる。世界の多くの関連性のある、あるいは地理的に隣接している言語間において、理解可能性の度合いは様々に異なっており、方言連続体の状況にあることもしばしばである。

相互に理解可能な言語の一覧[編集]

文語および口語[編集]

口語のみ[編集]

文語のみ[編集]

死語[編集]

関連項目[編集]

出典[編集]

  1. ^ Denis Sinor, The Uralic and Altaic Series, p.90
  2. ^ a b Sebba, Mark (1997). Contact languages: pidgins and creoles. en:Palgrave Macmillan. p. 161. http://books.google.ca/books?id=bRT_jZl39AMC 2010年5月19日閲覧。. 
  3. ^ a b Mark Sebba (2007). Spelling and society: the culture and politics of orthography around the world. Cambridge University Press. p. 116. http://books.google.ca/books?id=JHgsfADZF9IC 2010年5月19日閲覧。. 
  4. ^ a b Gooskens, Charlotte (2007). “The Contribution of Linguistic Factors to the Intelligibility of Closely Related Languages”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (University of Groningen) 28 (6). http://www.let.rug.nl/gooskens/pdf/publ_JMMD_2007.pdf 2010年5月19日閲覧。. 
  5. ^ a b c Alexander M. Schenker. 1993. "Proto-Slavonic," The Slavonic Languages. (Routledge). Pp. 60-121. Pg. 60: "[The] distinction between dialect and language being blurred, there can be no unanimity on this issue in all instances..."
    C.F. Voegelin and F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and Index of the World's Languages (Elsevier). Pg. 311, "In terms of immediate mutual intelligibility, the East Slavic zone is a single language."
    Bernard Comrie. 1981. The Languages of the Soviet Union (Cambridge). Pg. 145-146: "The three East Slavonic languages are very close to one another, with very high rates of mutual intelligibility...The separation of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian as distinct languages is relatively recent...Many Ukrainians in fact speak a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian, finding it difficult to keep the two languages apart...
  6. ^ a b Beswick, Jaine (2005). “Linguistic homogeneity in Galician and Portuguese borderland communities”. Estudios de Sociolingüística 6 (1): 39–64. 
  7. ^ a b c d Greenberg, Robert David (2004). Language and identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its disintegration. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 9780199258154. http://books.google.com/books?id=3ZvDJQHaUZkC&pg=PA13&dq=bosnian+serbian+croatian+language+mutual&ei=4zliS_WOMqDsMKDMyf4N&cd=1#v=onepage&q=renamed%20these%20classes&f=false. 
  8. ^ a b c Bø, I (1976). “Ungdom od nabolad. En undersøkelse av skolens og fjernsynets betydning for nabrospråksforstålen.”. Rogalandsforskning 4. 
  9. ^ GAVILANES LASO, J. L. (1996) Algunas consideraciones sobre la inteligibilidad mutua hispano-portuguesa In: Actas del Congreso Internacional Luso-Español de Lengua y Cultura en la Frontera, Cáceres, Universidad de Extremadura, 175-187.
  10. ^ Comparação Português e Castelhano
  11. ^ Algumas observações sobre a noção de língua portuguesa
  12. ^ a b Trudgill, Peter (2004). “Glocalisation and the Ausbau sociolinguistics of modern Europe”. In Duszak, Anna; Okulska, Urszula. Speaking from the Margin: Global English from a European Perspective. Polish Studies in English Language and Literature 11. Peter Lang. ISBN 0820473286. http://www.newjumbo.info/go/nph-go.cgi/000110A/http/web.archive.org/web/20060313102742/http:/=2fwww.york.ac.uk/depts/lang/Jack_Chambers/globalisation.pdf. 
  13. ^ a b Tokelauan language
  14. ^ Denis Sinor, The Uralic and Altaic Series, p.90
  15. ^ a b Language profile Macedonian, UCLA International Institute
  16. ^ GAVILANES LASO, J. L. (1996) Algunas consideraciones sobre la inteligibilidad mutua hispano-portuguesa In: Actas del Congreso Internacional Luso-Español de Lengua y Cultura en la Frontera, Cáceres, Universidad de Extremadura, 175-187.
  17. ^ Comparação Português e Castelhano
  18. ^ Algumas observações sobre a noção de língua portuguesa
  19. ^ a b Kirundi Language
  20. ^ a b Hahn, Reinard F. (1998). “Uyghur”. In Lars Johanson, Éva Csató. The Turkic Languages. Taylor & Francis. p. 379. ISBN 9780415082006. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=TdsOAAAAQAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA379&dq=uzbek+uyghur+language+mutually+intelligible&ots=1tsdykaYb5&sig=f2e1PD6fagVYFNGinsgtltGONfo#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  21. ^ a b Gumperz, John J. (February, 1957). “Language Problems in the Rural Development of North India”. The Journal of Asian Studies 16 (2): 251–259. 
  22. ^ a b Ausbau and Abstand languages
  23. ^ a b c Dari/Persian/Tajik languages
  24. ^ a b Barbour, Stephen (2000). Language and nationalism in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780199250851. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1ixmu8Iga7gC&pg=PA106. 
  25. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 315. ISBN 1405103167. http://books.google.de/books?id=5hOtPBF6XWwC&pg=PA315&dq=%22old+english%22+%22old+saxon%22+mutually+intelligible&client=firefox-a&hl=en&cd=4#v=onepage&q=%22old%20english%22%20%22old%20saxon%22%20mutually%20intelligible&f=false. 

外部リンク[編集]