利かし

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
移動先: 案内検索

利かし(きかし)とは囲碁用語の一つで、「相手が応ぜざるを得ず、しかも将来のはたらきを含んだ手」(大辞林)のことである。将棋でもほぼ同じような意味で通じる。

利かしの定義には、「先手であること」「打つことで何らかの利益が見込まれること」が含まれる。先手で打てるが、将来の利益や手段を失うマイナスの方が大きい場合のことを味消しという。しかし、利かしを打つタイミング、利かしか味消しであるかは時として微妙で、利かしを打ち損ねて失敗する場合もある。

プロ棋士の間でも、比較的ドライに利かしを決めるタイプと、可能な限り利きを残すタイプの2種類に大別される。前者としては小林光一、後者は大竹英雄井山裕太などが有名。

また、プロは利かされを嫌い、利かしに対する反発によって思わぬところから戦いが始まることがある。

利かしの実例[編集]

 

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高目定石の一形。黒は1のアテを利かし、左辺への白の進出を止める。さらに3から5を利かせて外勢を固めることができる。この際、黒3・5を先に打ってしまうと黒1が利かないことに注意。このように、利かしは手順も重要になる。

白からは8のノゾキが利く。黒は切らせるわけにいかないので9とツイでおく。白8の石は対隅のシチョウアタリになる可能性や、この近辺で戦いが起こった時に役に立つ可能性、さらに黒の眼型を奪う意味があり、多くの場合無駄にならない(「打ち得」などと表現する)。


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上図の定石で、もし黒が7のカケツギを打たずに手を抜いた場合、同じように白1とノゾいてしまうのは味消しの悪手になる。この形では白が2の点に直接切断して戦えるのに、それを自ら放棄して相手を強化させてしまうからである。このように、先手で打てるからといって、何でも打ってしまえばよいというものではない。

利かしの保留[編集]

利かしをいつ打つかは判断が難しい。

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大ナダレ外マガリ定石の一形。かつては白a、黒bを換わってから1にツグのが定石とされてきたが、現在ではこの交換を打たずに黙って白1と打つことが多い。状況によってaではなくcから利かす可能性もあるため、絶対の利きを保留する手段である。

利き筋[編集]

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現在△の2子は取られているが、将来白石がaのどこかに来ると、白bからアテて▲の5子が逆に取られてしまう。このため黒は、aの地点に白石があるものと思って戦わねばならない。こうした場合、aは「白の利き筋」と表現される。

参考図書[編集]

  • 山城宏『消しと利かし (烏鷺うろブックス) 』日本棋院 1989年
  • 『実力五段囲碁読本―キカシを考える 』誠文堂新光社 2000年
  • 趙治勲『利かしの哲学(最強囲碁塾)』河出書房新社 2003年
  • 小林覚『「利かし、利き筋」集中講義 (マイコミ囲碁ブックス) 』2007年