ハプログループD (mtDNA)

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ハプログループD (mtDNA)(ハプログループD (ミトコンドリアDNA)、: Haplogroup D (mtDNA))とは、分子人類学で用いられる、人類ミトコンドリアDNAハプログループ(型集団)の分類のうち、ハプログループMを祖先に持ち「4883 5178A 16362」により定義されるものである[1]。48000年前に東アジアで誕生した[2]

分布[編集]

ハプログループDは東アジア東南アジア北アジア中央アジアそしてアメリカ大陸に至るまで広範囲に観察される。形質人類学におけるモンゴロイドの分布域と概ね重なる。日本人の約41%-42%がこの系統に属し[3][4][5]、うち下位のD4系統は日本人の30%以上が属す最も高頻度のグループとなっている。

下位系統[編集]


ヒトミトコンドリアDNAハプログループ系統樹

  ミトコンドリア・イブ (L)    
L0 L1-6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6  
  M N  
M7   CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X   N9
M7a C Z B F R0   JT P  U Y
HV J T K
H V

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  2. ^ "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock Supplementary material" (PDF). 2009. pp. page89.
  3. ^ Asari 2007
  4. ^ Umetsu 2005
  5. ^ Maruyama 2003
  6. ^ Sayaka Maruyama, Kiyoshi Minaguchi, and Naruya Saitou, "Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA lineages in the Japanese population", Int J Legal Med (2003) 117 : 218–225. DOI 10.1007/s00414-003-0379-2
  7. ^ Kazuo Umetsu, Masashi Tanaka, Isao Yuasa et al., "Multiplex amplified product-length polymorphism analysis of 36 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms for haplogrouping of East Asian populations", Electrophoresis (2005), 26, 91–98. DOI 10.1002/elps.200406129
  8. ^ a b Derenko M, Malyarchuk B, Denisova G, Perkova M, Rogalla U, et al. (2012), "Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe." PLoS ONE 7(2): e32179. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032179
  9. ^ East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination in Koreans: haplogroup-level coding region SNP analysis and subhaplogroup-level control region sequence analysis
  10. ^ Qing-Peng Kong, Yong-Gang Yao, Mu Liu et al., "Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms of five ethnic populations from northern China", Hum Genet (2003) 113 : 391–405. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1004-7
  11. ^ Asari M et al., "Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population", Leg Med (2007), doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.007
  12. ^ Zheng H-X, Yan S, Qin Z-D, Wang Y, Tan J-Z, et al. 2011 Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes. PLoS ONE 6(10): e25835. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025835
  13. ^ Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Tomasz Grzybowski et al., "Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007;81:1025–1041. DOI: 10.1086/522933
  14. ^ Ripan S. Malhi, Katherine E. Breece, Beth A. Schultz Shook, and Frederika A. Kaestle, "Patterns of mtDNA Diversity in Northwestern North America", Human Biology, Volume 76, Number 1, February 2004, pp. 33-54. DOI: 10.1353/hub.2004.0023
  15. ^ Ripan S. Malhi, Holly M. Mortensen, Jason A. Eshleman et al., "Native American mtDNA Prehistory in the American Southwest", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 120:108–124 (2003)
  16. ^ Bo Wen, Hui Li, Song Gao et al., "Genetic Structure of Hmong-Mien Speaking Populations in East Asia as Revealed by mtDNA Lineages", Mol. Biol. Evol. 22(3):725–734. (2005) doi:10.1093/molbev/msi055
  17. ^ Catherine Hill, Pedro Soares, Maru Mormina et al., "Phylogeography and Ethnogenesis of Aboriginal Southeast Asians", Mol. Biol. Evol. 23(12):2480–2491. (2006) doi:10.1093/molbev/msl124
  18. ^ Catherine Hill, Pedro Soares, Maru Mormina et al., "A Mitochondrial Stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia", Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2007);80:29–43.
  19. ^ Supannee Kaewsutthi, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, Yutthana Joyjinda et al., "Mitochondrial Haplogroup Background May Influence Southeast Asian G11778A Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy", Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 1;52(7):4742-8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5816
  20. ^ Natalia V. Volodko, Elena B. Starikovskaya, Ilya O. Mazunin et al., "Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Arctic Siberians, with Particular Reference to the Evolutionary History of Beringia and Pleistocenic Peopling of the Americas", The American Journal of Human Genetics 82, 1084–1100, May 2008. DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.03.019.
  21. ^ Tanaka M et al. 2004, Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan Genome Res. 2004. 14: 1832-1850
  22. ^ Min-Sheng Peng, Jun-Dong He, Hai-Xin Liu, Ya-Ping Zhang, "Tracing the legacy of the early Hainan Islanders - a perspective from mitochondrial DNA", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:46. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/46
  23. ^ Kristina A. Tabbada, Jean Trejaut, Jun-Hun Loo et al., "Philippine Mitochondrial DNA Diversity: A Populated Viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia?", Mol. Biol. Evol. 27(1):21–31. (2010) doi:10.1093/molbev/msp215
  24. ^ Sardana A Fedorova, Maere Reidla, Ene Metspalu et al., "Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:127. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/127