ハプログループA (mtDNA)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
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ハプログループA (mtDNA)(ハプログループA (ミトコンドリアDNA)、: Haplogroup A (mtDNA))とは、分子人類学で用いられる、人類ミトコンドリアDNAハプログループ(型集団)の分類のうち、ハプログループNを祖先に持ち「152, 235, 523-524d, 663, 1736, 4248, 4824, 8794, 16290, 16319」により定義されるものである[1]東アジア北部にて50000-30000年前に誕生した[2]

分布[編集]

下位系統のA2はチュクチ・カムチャツカ系民族とアメリカ先住民に高頻度に見られる[3][4]

その他の系統A(xA2)はそれほど高頻度でないが、アジアにおいて広くみられる[5][6]アジアでは、A(xA2)は特に、中国南西部、チベット人などのチベット・ビルマ系民族である程度(6/65 = 9.2%,[7] 25/216 = 11.6%,[8] 11/73 = 15.1%[8])みられる。また朝鮮民族の約7∼15%[9][10][11]日本人の約5~12%、[12][13][14][15]モンゴル人の4~13%[10][11][9]漢民族の約3~9%[13]が属す。ベトナム人[10]タタール人[16]トルコ人[17] ペルシャ人タジク人[9]オーストロネシア系民族[18]でもみられる。


ヒトミトコンドリアDNAハプログループ系統樹

  ミトコンドリア・イブ (L)    
L0 L1-6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6  
  M N  
M7   CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X   N9
M7a C Z B F R0   JT P  U Y
HV J T K
H V

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  2. ^ Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Ricardo Kanitz, Roberta Eckert, Ana C.S. Valls, Mauricio R. Bogo, Francisco M. Salzano, David Glenn Smith, Wilson A. Silva, Marco A. Zago, Andrea K. Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Sidney E.B. Santos, Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler, and Sandro L.Bonatto (2008). "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (3): 583–592. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013. PMC 2427228. PMID 18313026. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
  3. ^ Tanaka, Masashi et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan". Genome Research 14 (10A): 1832–1850. doi:10.1101/gr.2286304. PMC 524407. PMID 15466285.
  4. ^ Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Ricardo Kanitz, Roberta Eckert, Ana C.S. Valls, Mauricio R. Bogo, Francisco M. Salzano, David Glenn Smith, Wilson A. Silva, Marco A. Zago, Andrea K. Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Sidney E.B. Santos, Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler, and Sandro L.Bonatto (2008). "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (3): 583–592. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013. PMC 2427228. PMID 18313026. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
  5. ^ Ville N Pimenoff, David Comas, Jukka U Palo et al., "Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers", European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 1254–1264; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.101
  6. ^ Noriyuki Fuku, Kyong Soo Park, Yoshiji Yamada et al., "Mitochondrial Haplogroup N9a Confers Resistance against Type 2 Diabetes in Asians", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007; 80:407–415. DOI: 10.1086/512202
  7. ^ Tanaka, Masashi et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan". Genome Research 14 (10A): 1832–1850. doi:10.1101/gr.2286304. PMC 524407. PMID 15466285.
  8. ^ a b Fuyun Ji, Mark S. Sharpley, Olga Derbeneva et al., "Mitochondrial DNA variant associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and high-altitude Tibetans", PNAS (May 8, 2012), vol. 109, no. 19, 7391–7396. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1202484109
  9. ^ a b c Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Tomasz Grzybowski et al., "Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007;81:1025–1041. DOI: 10.1086/522933
  10. ^ a b c Han-Jun Jin, Chris Tyler-Smith and Wook Kim, "The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers" PLoS ONE (2009)
  11. ^ a b Qing-Peng Kong, Yong-Gang Yao, Mu Liu et al., "Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms of five ethnic populations from northern China", Hum Genet (2003) 113 : 391–405. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1004-7
  12. ^ Tanaka, Masashi et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan". Genome Research 14 (10A): 1832–1850. doi:10.1101/gr.2286304. PMC 524407. PMID 15466285.
  13. ^ a b Kazuo Umetsu, Masashi Tanaka, Isao Yuasa et al., "Multiplex amplified product-length polymorphism analysis of 36 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms for haplogrouping of East Asian populations", Electrophoresis (2005), 26, 91–98. DOI 10.1002/elps.200406129
  14. ^ Asari M et al., "Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population", Leg Med (2007), doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.007
  15. ^ Zheng H-X, Yan S, Qin Z-D, Wang Y, Tan J-Z, et al. 2011 Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes. PLoS ONE 6(10): e25835. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025835
  16. ^ Boris Malyarchuk, Miroslava Derenko, Galina Denisova, and Olga Kravtsova, "Mitogenomic Diversity in Tatars from the Volga-Ural Region of Russia", Mol. Biol. Evol. 27(10):2220–2226. (2010) doi:10.1093/molbev/msq065
  17. ^ Marchani, EE; Watkins, WS; Bulayeva, K; Harpending, HC; Jorde, LB (2008年). “Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan”. BMC genetics 9: 47. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-47. PMC 2488347. PMID 18637195. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2488347. 
  18. ^ Kristina A. Tabbada, Jean Trejaut, Jun-Hun Loo et al., "Philippine Mitochondrial DNA Diversity: A Populated Viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia?", Mol. Biol. Evol. 27(1):21–31. (2010) doi:10.1093/molbev/msp215