ザカリアス・ムサウイ

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ザカリアス・ムサウイ

ザカリアス・ムサウイアラビア語: زكريا موسوي Zacarias Moussaoui1968年5月30日 - ) はフランス市民権を有するモロッコ出身者の子で、2001年9月11日アメリカ同時多発テロ事件に関与したとされアメリカ合衆国において裁判にかけられている人物。2001年8月16日にFBIによって逮捕された。ミネソタ州イーガンの航空訓練学校に入学していたムサウイの入学動機を教官が疑問に思い通報したのがきっかけであった。

テロが実行された後にムサウイは「20人目の実行犯」としてメディアの注目を浴びた。2006年5月3日に陪審は仮釈放なしの終身刑を宣告し、公式には翌日に言い渡された。APによると、陪審のうち3人は彼が限られたテロに関する知識しか持たなかったとし、さらに3人が彼が果たした役割は小さなものであったと結論づけた。

人生[編集]

子供時代[編集]

ムサウイの母親Aicha el-Wafiは14歳のときに結婚。5年後に彼の両親はフランスに移住し、ムサウイはそこで生まれた。彼女は4人の小さな子供を抱えていたが、家庭内暴力により離婚、掃除婦として生計を立てながら子供達を育てた。家庭内では宗教的な教育はなかったという。モロッコからの移民として、暴力や窃盗を含む偏見を受けた。ムサウイは学校で特にバスケットボールを好んだが、スポーツの道を進みたかった彼は失望することとなる。

軍事訓練[編集]

ムサウイはオクラホマにいた間、"Abu Khaled al Sahrawi"また"Shaqil"という名前で知られていた。 彼はロンドン・サウスバンク大学において国際ビジネスの修士号を持っていた。彼はブリクストンモスクで、後に"Shoe Bomber"として知られるようになるリチャード・レイと知り合い、過激派としての一歩を踏み出すことになる。後にムサウイは戦闘服にバックパックといういでたちでモスクに現れ、ジハードに参加するための情報を聖職者に求めたことが原因でモスクを追い出される。ムサウイはアブ・ ハムザ・アル・マスリが訓練を受けたフィンズベリー・パーク・モスクとも関係があると見られている。

フランス当局はロンドンでイスラーム過激派といるのに気付いた1996年にムサウイの監視を始めた。1998年、アフガニスタンのハルデン訓練所に通い、翌年同様に帰国したといわれている。2000年9月、マレーシアに行き、ムサウイを会社の代表ということにしたヤジド・スファート所有のマンションに滞在した。9/11ハイジャック犯のうち2名が2000年1月にマンションに住んでいた。ジェマ・イスラミアの指導者リドゥアン・イスマウッディンは、35000ドルを払ってムサウイを提供し、10月にマレーシアに文書を運んだ。

操縦訓練[編集]

2001年2月26日から5月29までムサウイはオクラホマ州ノーマンのエアマン飛行学校の訓練課程に通った。50時間以上費やしたにもかかわらず、試験に合格せず、免許を取れずに退学した。この学校にはワールドトレードセンターの南北の棟にそれぞれ突っ込んだモハメド・アタMarwan al-Shehhiが参観した。アタとal-Shehhiはフロリダ州ヴェニスの学校で訓練を受けた。

オクラホマ州ノーマンではムサウイはフセイン・アルアッタスというルームメートがいた。2001年8月11日、フセイン・アルアッタスはオクラホマ州からミネソタ州にムサウイを車に乗せて行った[1]。フセイン・アルアッタスは二人が2001年8月後半か9月前半にニューヨーク市に旅行に行く予定だったと言った。2002年、アルアッタスはFBIに嘘をついてムサウイの名前を秘密にし、ムサウイのジハードと反米の信念を隠し、ムサウイがジハードの活動家にしようとしていたことを隠し、オクラホマ州で飛行訓練を受けている他の中東人の名前を隠したことを認めた[2]

8月前半、ビナルシブから(当初はドイツのデュッセルドルフとハンブルクから)電子振替で14000ドルを受け取ったといわれている。この金はミネソタ州イーガンのPan-Am国際飛行学院で約2週間後に受ける訓練の助けになるものであった。8月13日、ムサウイは747-400フライトシミュレーターの訓練を受けるために100ドル紙幣で6800ドルを支払った。パンナムが使うこのシミュレーターは、ノースウエスト航空宇宙訓練会社(NATCO、ノースウエスト航空と提携している訓練設備)が使っていた。

ムサウイを担当する講師クランシー・プリヴォストは、ムサウイを疑い始めた。ムサウイの素行が、これまでに入学した生徒がジャンボジェットを恐らく使ったことがない事実にもかかわらず訓練を受けにきた見た目は裕福な生徒と変わりはなかったが、実際は違っていた。プリヴォストは後に事前教習でムサウイが正しい隠語は何か聞こうとしたが他の生徒ではありえないことだと語った。ムサウイは747の実技教習本は読んでいたが、飛行機のシステムは余り理解していなかった。プリヴォストは何故この男がシミュレーションを受けようとするのか困惑した。幾つかの点で確信を持ち、FBIに連絡し、FBIが会いに来た。(後に言われているような離陸と着陸の訓練をムサウイがしなかったことはない。)

逮捕[編集]

2001年8月16日、ムサウイはミネソタ州でFBIのハリー・サミットに逮捕され、入国管理法違反で告発された。FBIの中には飛行訓練が軍事目的ではないかと懸念するものがいて、その為にミネソタ州当局はラップトップコンピューターを調査しようとしたが、却下された。逮捕された時、ナイフ2丁と747操縦教本、フライトシミュレーターのコンピュータープログラム、飛行手袋と脛当て、クロップダストに関する情報の入ったCDを持っていた。

捜査を指揮したのは、ムサウイの私室を捜査したいと明確に示したコリーン・ローリー捜査官であった。この請求は上司に却下され、後に外国情報監視法(FISA)により(9.11事件後にパトリオット法により改定された)正式に却下された。更に数回試みたが、同じく却下された。その結果、早期に証拠を収集することはできなかった。

FBIを監視するチャック・グラスリー上院議員(民主党、アイオワ州)は後にロバート・ミューラーFBI長官に手紙を書いた。

FISAの規定を適用したいなら、捜査官はドイツの主な資金源も情報機関が監視している間に少なくとも2人のハイジャック犯と会ったマレーシアのアルカイダ幹部との関係をムサウイに関する情報として見出したことでしょう。

法廷の進行[編集]

On December 11, 2001, Moussaoui was indicted by a federal grand jury in United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. Moussaoui was indicted on six felony charges: conspiracy to commit acts of terrorism transcending national boundaries, conspiracy to commit aircraft piracy,conspiracy to destroy aircraft, conspiracy to use weapons of mass destruction, conspiracy to murder united states employees, and conspiracy to destroy property [3] The indictment of Zacarias Moussaoui, included supporting conspirators, Ramzi Bin al-Shibh and Mustafa al-Hawsawi for their role in the attack "to murder thousands of innocent people in New York, Virginia and Pennsylvania."

His trial opened in October 2002 in Alexandria, Virginia under the view of Judge Leonie Brinkema. Moussaoui declined the assistance of his court-appointed attorneys, and asked to defend himself. Brinkema deemed him competent to defend himself and allowed the trial to move forward. Moussaoui later requested the occasional assistance of attorneys to help him with technical issues.

Moussaoui admitted his involvement with al-Qaeda, but claimed he was not involved in the 9/11 attacks. Rather, he claimed that he was preparing for a separate attack. Ramzi Binalshibh, an al-Qaeda leader in U.S. custody and an alleged mastermind of the 9/11 attacks, told investigators that Moussaoui met with him prior to September 11, but Binalshibh chose not to use him. Binalshibh felt that Moussaoui had previously drawn too much attention to himself through a series of flight lessons and inquiries about crop dusting. No evidence directly linking Moussaoui to the 9/11 attacks has been released.

The trial highlighted a tension in the United States between the judiciary and national security. Moussaoui made requests for access to confidential documents and the right to call captive al-Qaeda members as witnesses, notably Binalshibh, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi. Both requests were claimed by prosecutors to be potential threats to national security. Brinkema denied the motion to access confidential documents, although Moussaoui was permitted to use several al-Qaeda prisoners as witnesses.

Brinkema put the death penalty "off limits" on October 2, 2003, in reply to government defiance of her order to provide access to Moussaoui's witnesses. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the Brinkema ruling, holding that the U.S. government could use summaries of interviews/interrogations of these witnesses. On March 21, 2005, the United States Supreme Court denied, without comment, Moussaoui's pre-trial appeal of the Fourth Circuit's decision, returning the case to Brinkema.

On April 22, 2005, in one of the court sessions at the end of the current trial phase, Moussaoui surprised the whole audience by pleading guilty to all of the charges against him, while at the same time denying having any intention to produce a massacre like 9/11. He said that it was not his conspiracy, and that he intended to free sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman. According to Moussaoui, his master plan was to hijack a Boeing 747-400, since the plane is one of a few that could reach Afghanistan from the U.S. without any intermediate stops.

On February 6, Moussaoui shouted "I am Al-Qaeda. They do not represent me; they are Americans," referring to his attorneys while being escorted from the courtroom in front of 120 potential jurors. [1]

In March 2006, during the Moussaoui trial, several premises made headlines, including FBI agents stating that the bureau was aware, years before the attacks in 2001, that al-Qaeda planned to use planes to destroy important buildings [2], and Brinkema's decision to consider dismissal of the death penalty. Brinkema announced her decision in response to a violation of a pretrial order barring witnesses from exposure to any opening statements or trial testimony by the attorney for the Transportation Security Administration, Carla Martin. Martin had sent e-mail to seven Federal Aviation Administration officials describing opening statements of the prosecution and commentary on government witnesses from the start of the testimony Template:Citeneeded, effectively 'coaching the witnesses' [3]. Brinkema said, "In all the years I've been on the bench, I have never seen such an egregious violation of a rule on witnesses," and described the situation as a "significant error by the government affecting the . . . integrity of the criminal justice system of the United States in the context of a death case." However, days later, under significant media attention, Brinkema decided not to dismiss the case, and instead ruled that witnesses may not testify and the government would be allowed to continue to seek the death penalty [4].

On March 27, 2006, Moussaoui testified that that he and "shoe bomber" Richard Reid had planned to crash a hijacked airplane into the White House in the September 11 attacks. No direct connection between Moussaoui and Reid had ever before been alleged, and this testimony contradicted earlier testimony by Moussaoui that he had been intended for an operation after September 11. When asked why he had previously lied, he stated that "You're allowed to lie for jihad. You're allowed any technique to defeat your enemy." [5] [6] There has been commentary in the mainstream media that Moussaoui's preference to die as an identified 9/11 plotter rather than receive a life sentence as a member of an unrealized scheme throws doubt on his self-admitted connection to 9/11 [7] [8] [9].

ムサウイによる主張[編集]

Template:Copyedit Moussaoui spent many years refusing court representation and filing confusing, insulting, and parallel court pleadings with his shifting set of court appointed lawyers. Moussaoui's behavior in court was erratic. Records of his pleadings and behavior have included:

  • 1/2/2002 Moussaoui: "In the name of Allah I do not have anything to plea and I enter no plea"[4]
  • 4/22/2002 Moussaoui fired court-appointed lawyers and defended himself until he found a Muslim lawyer [5]. Speaking to the Judge, Moussaoui stated
Read to the court: Sura Al-i-imran 3:118 SUra AlANfal 8:36 Surah Al-anfal 8:45, Surah Al-i-Imran 3:175; Surah Al Anam 6:162, AL An-am 6:162 as justifications for dropping counsel, proof of corruption of government and judge, proof of innocence, evidence he was taking best possible course of defense.
He then prays to Allah for the return of Andalusia, liberation of Ceuta, Medilla, India, and Kashmir to the Muslims, destruction of Israel and the Jewish people, liberation of Palestine, destruction of Russia, liberation of Chechnya, liberation of Afghanistan, and destruction of the USA.
In response Court orders psychiatric evaluation.
  • 6/7/2002 court-appointed psychiatrist declares Moussaoui sufficiently competent for trial.
  • 7/11/2002 filed pleading insisting on his competence to stand trial[6]:
"Motion for pre-contempt of Leonie Brinkema order to declare Zacarias Moussaoui crazy"
In it he says he had "try to get the help of the European Court of Justice and Parliaments"
He then offered an analysis of Judge Brinkema:
"'Mental Status enummeration
Axis 1: Acute symptoms of Islamophobia with complex of gender inferiority
Diagnostic Impressions
Legal pathological killer instinct with egomaniac demention to become supreme
Conclusion and Recommendations
Immediate Psychiatric Hospitalization to specialist unit (propose unit UBL treatment center...)"
  • 7/18/2002 Moussaoui enters guilty plea: "I have knowledge and I participated in al Qaeda. I am a member of Al Qaeda."... "I pledge bayat to Osama Bin Laden"[7]
Court rejects guilty plea as unconsidered, orders Moussaoui to rethink plea
  • 7/24/2002 Moussaoui's Roommate from Oklahoma flight school, Hussein al-Attas, 24, pleads guilty to seven counts of making false statements, including:
"The truth is that on several occasions, during the short time I knew him (Moussaoui) had expressed a general desire to participate in jihad,So my statement to the contrary was false."
"When the agents asked if I (also) knew his real name, I lied and said I did not"[8]
He states he told the FBI that he was going to go to Pakistan to seek medical assistance for a sick relative in Saudi Arabia, but admits "The real reason was (Moussaoui) had convinced me to go to speak to Islamic scholars and others who hold the belief that Islamic religion favors participation in jihad."
He admits to lying about his plans to go with Moussaoui to New York City in late August, 2001
He admitted to lying about some of Moussaoui's classmates at an Oklahoma flight school[9]
  • 7/28/2002 Moussaoui pleads guilty to 4 of six counts of conspiracy; denies conspiracy to murder united states employees, and destroy property.
"Today, I truthfully will enter on some of the charges, not all, a plea of guilty,"
"It should not be misunderstood that I endorse the entire indictment. There is enough factual basis for me to plead guilty in a truthful manner" [10]
Court rejects guilty plea as being too informal, reappoints counsel
responding to order to work with appointed counsel Moussaoui states "It is most disgusting."
  • 4/22/2003[11] header to pleading
"In the Name of Allah; Censured by the United Sodom of America
4/19/2003; Case No. 01455A; `7 S 1423
Slave of Allah, Zacharias Moussaoui vs.
Slave of Satan, John Ashcroft"
in pleading Judge Brinkema is referred to as Death Judge Leonie
  • 7/18/2003 two pleadings with the headers[12]:
"In the Name of Allah; Censured by the United Satan of America
Slave of Allah, Zacharias Moussaoui vs.
Slave of Satan, Bush and Ashcroft "
First Pleading is titled 'Wanted for WTC Bankruptcy' and offers "WTC profit and loss Account" with pleading:
Loss: 3000 sons of evil Profit: 19 slaves of allah
Second Pleading is titled 'No Pig Man Role in Moussaoui Deliverance Scenario'
States "To be seen in all God Fearing World Theatre Cinema
"Deadline for 3000+ hotseat tickets (please contact United Booking Limited"
  • 3/21/2006: responding to Al Attas testimony Moussaoui comments,

"God Bless Mohamed Atta." [13]

Additional case filings are posted on the| FindLaw website

死刑と求刑[編集]

Moussaoui, charged with conspiring to hijack planes and crash them into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, was in jail in Minnesota when the Sept. 11 attacks unfolded. In seeking a death sentence, prosecutors were required to prove that he "intentionally participated in an act…and the victim died as a direct result of the act." This was proven when he admitted he knew about the attacks and did nothing to stop them.

Having entered a guilty plea, Moussaoui was eligible for the death penalty. Germany said it would not release evidence against Moussaoui unless the U.S. promised not to seek death as punishment. On April 27, 2005, French Justice Minister Dominique Perben said, "When France gave elements of informations about Mister Moussaoui to the American justice, I obtained a written engagement of the United States not to use these elements to require or execute the death penalty."[要出典]

On March 13, 2006, Brinkema recessed the death-penalty case against Moussaoui because of a breach against the rules on witnesses. Seven FAA officials were previously sent emails by TSA attorney Carla Martin outlining the prosecution's opening statements and providing commentary on government witnesses from the first day of testimony. Martin was placed on administrative leave over the incident and may face contempt of court charges. On March 14, 2006, Brinkema ruled that the prosecution could continue to seek the death penalty against Moussaoui, but could not use key witnesses coached by Martin. On April 3, 2006, the jury in his case decided that Moussaoui was eligible for the death penalty.

At Moussaoui's sentencing trial, FBI agent Greg Jones testified that prior to the attacks, he urged his supervisor, Michael Maltbie, "to prevent Zacarias Moussaoui from flying a plane into the World Trade Center." Maltbie had refused to act on 70 requests from another agent, Harry Samit, to obtain a warrant to search Moussaoui's computer. [10]

On May 3, 2006, the jury reached a verdict: that Moussaoui be sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Three jurors decided that because Moussaoui had only limited knowledge of the hijackings, he should not be subject to the death penalty. A unanimous decision is needed for a federal death penalty sentence. Moussaoui was sentenced to six consecutive life terms on May 4 [11], as Judge Brinkema expressed her belief that the sentence was an appropriate one, inasmuch as it would deprive Moussaoui of "martyr[dom] in a great big bang of glory" and of the "chance to speak again", after Moussaoui entered the courtroom proclaiming his victory and asserting that the United States would "never get Osama bin Laden".

Moussaoui will serve his sentence at the maximum security United States Penitentiary Administrative Maximum Facility, located in Florence, Colorado. The facility houses only the most dangerous federal prisoners in need of the tightest controls and is called the "Alcatraz of the Rockies".

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