アマルナ文書

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EA161。アムル王からファラオに宛てた書簡。

アマルナ文書Amarna letters)は、エジプト中部のナイル川東岸アマルナで発見された楔形文字の書かれた粘土板文書である。

概要[編集]

アマルナ文書の多くは、エジプト第18王朝ファラオであったアメンヘテプ4世時代(在位:紀元前1353年?頃~紀元前1336年?頃)の外交政策と国際関係を示した史料で、紀元前14世紀古代オリエントを知るための重要な情報源のひとつとされており、ベルリン博物館大英博物館カイロ博物館などに収蔵されている。

アマルナ文書は1885年、アマルナで肥料として使用する日乾煉瓦の材料を探していた地元女性によって偶然発見され、1891年、エジプト考古学者のフリンダーズ・ピートリーによってアテン大神殿の南、ファラオ通信文書館跡から出土したものであることが確認された。出土した総数は382枚にのぼり、紀元前14世紀の前半から中盤にかけてのオリエント列強やエジプト支配国の高官たちがファラオに宛てた外交書簡で、多くが当時の近東の国際公用語であるアッカド語で記されている[1]

エジプトと敵対していた勢力の攻撃にさらされていた弱小首長から届いたものが多く、黄金や補給物資の救援を訴えている。ピーター・クレイトン: Peter A. Clayton)が「当時のアクエアテン(アメンヘテプ4世)は新宗教の研鑽に没頭しており、こうした訴えの殆どは無視された」と指摘している[2]ようにそのほとんどが来信の記録であった。

アマルナ文書の一覧[編集]

アマルナ文書は350の書簡と書記養成学校で用いられたと考えられる32の辞書や文学テキストで構成される[3]。EA1からEA382の番号で管理されており、差出人にはバビロニアアッシリアミタンニアルザワ英語版キプロスヒッタイトシリアパレスティナなどの諸国の支配者の名が記されている。以下に一覧を記す。

番号 差出人と宛名
EA# 1 Amenhotep 3 to Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil
EA# 2 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 3 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 4 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 5 Amenhotep 3 to Babylon king KadashmanEnlil
EA# 6 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 3
EA# 7 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 8 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 9 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 10 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 11 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 12 princess to her lord
EA# 13 Babylon
EA# 14 Amenhotep 4 to Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2
EA# 15 Assyria king Ashur-Uballit 1 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 16 Assyria king Ashur-Uballit 1 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 17 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 18 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 19 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 20 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 21 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 22 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 23 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 24 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 25 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 26 Mitanni king Tushratta to widow Tiy
EA# 27 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 28 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 29 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 30 Mitanni king to Palestine kings
EA# 31 Amenhotep 3 to Arzawa king Tarhundaraba
EA# 32 Arzawa king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep 3(?)
EA# 33 Alashiya king to pharaoh #1
EA# 34 Alashiya king to pharaoh #2
EA# 35 Alashiya king to pharaoh #3
EA# 36 Alashiya king to pharaoh #4
EA# 37 Alashiya king to pharaoh #5
EA# 38 Alashiya king to pharaoh #6
EA# 39 Alashiya king to pharaoh #7
EA# 40 Alashiya minister to Egypt minister
EA# 41 Hittite king Suppiluliuma to Huria
EA# 42 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 43 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 44 Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaoh
EA# 45 Ugarit king Mistu ... to pharaoh
EA# 46 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 47 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 48 Ugarit queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queen
EA# 49 Ugarit king Niqm-Adda 2 to pharaoh
EA# 50 woman to her mistress Bi...
EA#051 Nuhasse king Addunirari to pharaoh
EA#052 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #1
EA#053 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #2
EA#054 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #3
EA#055 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #4
EA#056 ... to king
EA#057 ...
EA#058
EA#058 Qatihutisupa to king(?) obverse
EA#059 Tunip peoples to pharaoh
EA#060 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #1
EA#061 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #2
EA#062 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to Pahanate
EA#063 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #3
EA#064 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #4
EA#065 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #5
EA#066 --- to king
EA#067 --- to king
EA#068 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1
EA#069 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
EA#070 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1
EA#071 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Haia(?)
EA#072 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #3
EA#073 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #1
EA#074 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #4
EA#075 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #5
EA#076 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #6
EA#077 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #2
EA#078 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #7
EA#079 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #8
EA#080 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #9
EA#081 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #10
EA#082 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #3
EA#083 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #11
EA#084 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #12
EA#085 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #13
EA#086 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #4
EA#087 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #5
EA#088 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #14
EA#089 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #15
EA#090 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #16
EA#091 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #17
EA#092 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #18
EA#093 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #6
EA#094 Gubla man to pharaoh
EA#095 Gubal king Rib-Addi to chief
EA#096 chief to Rib-Addi
EA#097 Iapah-Addi to Sumu-Hadi
EA#098 Iapah-Addi to Ianhamu
EA#099 pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)
EA#100 Irqata peoples
EA#1001 Tagi to Lab-Aya
EA#101 Gubla man to Egypt official
EA#102 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Ianhamu
EA#103 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #19
EA#104 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #20
EA#105 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #21
EA#106 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #22
EA#107 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #23
EA#108 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #24
EA#109 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #25
EA#110 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #26
EA#111 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #27
EA#112 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #28
EA#113 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
EA#114 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #29
EA#115 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #30
EA#116 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #31
EA#117 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #32
EA#118 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #33
EA#119 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #34
EA#120 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #35
EA#121 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #36
EA#122 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #37
EA#123 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #38
EA#124 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #39
EA#125 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #40
EA#126 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #41
EA#127 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #42
EA#128 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #43
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #44
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #45
EA#130 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #46
EA#131 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #47
EA#132 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #48
EA#133 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #49
EA#134 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #50
EA#135 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #51
EA#136 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #52
EA#137 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #53
EA#138 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #54
EA#139 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1
EA#140 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2
EA#141 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #1
EA#142 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #2
EA#143 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #3
EA#144 Zidon king Zimriddi to pharaoh
EA#145 Zimrida to an official
EA#146 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #1
EA#147 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2
EA#148 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3
EA#149 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4
EA#150 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5
EA#151 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6
EA#152 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7
EA#153 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8
EA#154 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9
EA#155 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10
EA#156 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #1
EA#157 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2
EA#158 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #1
EA#159 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3
EA#160 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4
EA#161 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5
EA#162 pharaoh to Amurra prince
EA#163 pharaoh to ...
EA#164 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #2
EA#165 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6
EA#166 Amurru king Aziri to Hai
EA#167 Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)
EA#168 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7
EA#169 Amurru son of Aziri to a Egypt official
EA#170 Ba-Aluia & Battiilu
EA#171 Amurru son of Aziri to pharaoh
EA#172 ---
EA#173 ... to king
EA#174 Bieri of Hasabu
EA#175 Ildaja of Hazi to king
EA#176 Abdi-Risa
EA#177 Guddasuna king Jamiuta
EA#178 Hibija to a chief
EA#179 ... to king
EA#180 ... to king
EA#181 ... to king
EA#182 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #1
EA#183 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2
EA#184 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3
EA#185 Hazi king Majarzana to king
EA#186 Majarzana of Hazi to king #2
EA#187 Satija of ... to king
EA#188 ... to king
EA#189 Qadesh mayor Etakkama
EA#190 pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)
EA#191 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king
EA#192 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2
EA#193 Dijate to king
EA#194 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #1
EA#195 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #2
EA#196 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #3
EA#197 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #4
EA#198 Arahattu of Kumidi to king
EA#199 ... the king
EA#200 servant to king
EA#2001 Sealants
EA#2002 Sealants
EA#201 Artemanja of Ziribasani to king
EA#202 Amajase to king
EA#203 Abdi-Milki of Sashimi
EA#204 prince of Qanu to king
EA#205 Gubbu prince to king
EA#206 prince of Naziba to king
EA#207 Ipteh ... to king
EA#208 ... to Egypt official or king
EA#209 Zisamimi to king
EA#210 Zisamimi to Amenhotep 4
EA#2100 Carchemish king to Ugarit king Asukwari
EA#211 Zitrijara to king #1
EA#2110 Ewiri-Shar to Plsy
EA#212 Zitrijara to king #2
EA#213 Zitrijara to king #3
EA#214 ... to king
EA#215 Baiawa to king #1
EA#216 Baiawa to king #2
EA#217 Ah... to king
EA#218 ... to king
EA#219 ... to king
EA#220 Nukurtuwa of (?) Zunu to king
EA#221 Wiktazu to king #1
EA#222 pharaoh to Intaruda
EA#222 Wiktazu to king #2
EA#223 Enguta to king
EA#224 Sum-Adda to king
EA#225 Sum-Adda of Samhuna to king
EA#226 Sipturi_ to king
EA#227 Hazor king
EA#228 Hazor king Abdi-Tirsi
EA#229 Abdi-na-... to king
EA#230 Iama to king
EA#231 ... to king
EA#232 Acco king Zurata to pharaoh
EA#233 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1
EA#234 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2
EA#235 Zitatna to king
EA#236 ... to king
EA#237 Bajadi to king
EA#238 Bajadi
EA#239 Baduzana
EA#240 ... to king
EA#241 Rusmania to king
EA#242 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1
EA#243 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2
EA#244 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3
EA#245 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4
EA#246 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5
EA#247 Megiddo king Biridija or Jasdata
EA#248 Jasdata to king
EA#248 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh
EA#249
EA#249 Addu-Ur-sag to king
EA#250 Addu-Ur-sag to king
EA#2500 Shechem
EA#251 ... to Egypt official
EA#252 Labaja to king
EA#253 Labaja to king
EA#254 Labaja to king
EA#255 Mut-Balu or Mut-Bahlum to king
EA#256 Mut-Balu to Ianhamu
EA#257 Balu-Mihir to king #1
EA#258 Balu-Mihir to king #2
EA#259 Balu-Mihir to king #3
EA#260 Balu-Mihir to king #4
EA#261 Dasru to king #1
EA#262 Dasru to king #2
EA#263 ... to lord
EA#264 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #1
EA#265 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #2
EA#266 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #3
EA#267 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1
EA#268 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2
EA#269 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3
EA#270 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4
EA#271 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5
EA#272 Sum. .. to king
EA#273 Ba-Lat-Nese to king
EA#274 Ba-Lat-Nese to king #2
EA#275 Iahazibada to king #1
EA#276 Iahazibada to king #2
EA#277 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1
EA#278 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2
EA#279 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#280 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#281 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4
EA#282 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5
EA#283 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6
EA#284 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7
EA#285 Jerusalem king Abdi-Hiba to pharaoh
EA#286 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#287 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#288 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#289 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Qiltu king Suwardata to king
EA#291 ... to ...
EA#292 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1
EA#293 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2
EA#294 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3
EA#295
EA#295 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4
EA#296 Gaza king Iahtiri
EA#297 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #1
EA#298 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2
EA#299 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3
EA#300 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4
EA#301 Subandu to king #1
EA#302 Subandu to king #2
EA#303 Subandu to king #3
EA#304 Subandu to king #4
EA#305 Subandu to king #5
EA#306 Subandu to king #6
EA#307 ... to king
EA#308 ... to king
EA#309 ... to king
EA#310 ... to king
EA#311 ... to king
EA#312 ... to king
EA#313 ... to king
EA#314 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #1
EA#315 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#316 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh
EA#317 Dagantakala to king #1
EA#318 Dagantakala to king #2
EA#319 Ahtirumna king Zurasar to king
EA#320 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #1
EA#321 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2
EA#322 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3
EA#323 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4
EA#324 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5
EA#325 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6
EA#326 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7
EA#327 ... the king
EA#328 Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaoh
EA#329 Lakis king Zimridi to pharaoh
EA#330 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #1
EA#331 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#332 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3
EA#333 Ebi to a prince
EA#334 ---dih of Zuhra [-?] to king
EA#335 --- [of Z]uhr[u] to king
EA#336 Hiziri to king #1
EA#337 Hiziri to king #2
EA#338 Zi. .. to king
EA#339 ... to king
EA#340 ...
EA#341 ...
EA#342 ...
EA#356 myth of Adapa and the South Wind
EA#357 myth the Ereskigal and Nergal
EA#358 myth fragments
EA#359 myth Epic of king of Battle
EA#360 ...
EA#361 ...
EA#364 Aiab to king
EA#365 Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaoh
EA#367 pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa
EA#xxx Amenhotep 3 to Milkili
H#3100 Tell el-Hesi
P#3200 Pella prince Mut-Balu to Yanhamu
P#3210 Lion Woman to king
T#3002 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3005 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3006 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
U#4001 Ugarit king Niqmaddu

脚注[編集]

[ヘルプ]
  1. ^ 一部ミタンニ語ヒッタイト語のものが存在する。
  2. ^ クレイトン2006、p.163
  3. ^ 地中海学会

参考文献[編集]

外部リンク[編集]