バーバル・サーニー

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ビルラ産業技術博物館のサーニーの胸像

バーバル・サーニー(Birbal Sahni FRS[1]1891年11月14日1949年4月10日)はインド古植物学者、地質学者である。バーバル・サーニー古植物学研究所を設立した[2][3].[4][5]。インド科学アカデミーの会長を務めた。

略歴[編集]

現在のパキスタンパンジャーブ州のサルゴーダー県のBheraに生まれた。銀行家でアマチュア科学者であった祖父の影響を受けて科学に興味を持った[1]。インドのGovernment College University、父親の働くラホール大学やパンジャブ大学で学んだ。1914年にケンブリッジ大学のエマニュエル・カレッジを卒業し、その後古植物学者のアルバート・スワードのもとでインドのゴンドワナ植物などの研究を行い、1919年にロンドン大学で博士号を得た。1919年にはミュンヘン大学のゲーベル(Karl Ritter von Goebel)のもとで研究を行った。インドに帰国し、バナラス・ヒンドゥ大学やパンジャブ大学の植物学の教授を務めた後、1921年にラクナウ大学の植物学部長となった。1921年にはケンブリッジ大学から博士号を得た。古植物学の自らの研究で業績を上げるだけでなく研究者を集め、ラクナウ大学はインドの植物学、古植物学の研究の中心としての評価を得た[1]。1946年にインド古植物学会を設立した。

1891年にイギリスの王立協会のフェローに選ばれた。他国の研究者と交流し、1930年代の2度の国際植物科学会議では古植物学部門の副議長を務めた。1937年から1929年までと1943年から1949年、インド科学アカデミーの会長を務めた。

主な著作[編集]

  • 1915. Foreign pollen in the ovules of Ginkgo and its significance in the study of fossil plants. New Phytol. 14 (4 and 5), 149–151.
  • 1915. The anatomy of Nephrolepis volzibilis J. Sim, with remarks on the biology and morphology of the genus. New Phytol. 14 (8 and 9), 251–274.
  • 1916. The vascular anatomy of the tubers of Nephrolepis. New Phytol. 15 (3 and 4), 72–80.
  • 1917. Observations on the evolution of branching in the Filicales. New Phytol. 16 (1 and 2), 1–23.
  • 1919. (With J. C. WILLIS.) Lawson's text book of botany. London: Univ. Tut. Press.
  • 1919. On an Australian specimen of Clepsydropsis. Ann. Bot. 33 (129), 81–92.
  • 1920. (With A. C. SEWARD) Indian Gondwana plants: a revision. Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Pal. Ind. 7 (I), 1–40.
  • 1921. A stem impression from the plant-bearing beds near Khunmu (Kashmir), provisionally referred to Gangamopteris Kashmirensis Seward. Proc. (8th Ind. Sci. Cong. Cal.) Asiat. Sac. Beng. (N.S.), 17 (4), 200.
  • 1921. The present position of Indian Palaeobotany. Pres. Add. 8th Ind. Sci. Cong. Cal. Proc. Asiat. Sac. Bengal (N.S.), 17 (4), 152–175.
  • 1924. On the anatomy of some petrified plants from the Government Museum, Madras. Proc. 11th Ind. Sci. Cong. Bangalore, p. 141.
  • 1925. The ontogeny of vascular plants and the theory of recapitulation. J. Ind. Bat. Soc. 4 (6), 202–216.
  • 1925. (With E. J. BRADSHAW) A fossil tree in the Panchet Series of the Lower Gondwanas near Asansol. Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. 58 (I), 77–79.
  • 1931. On certain fossil epiphytic ferns found on the stems of the Palaeozoic tree-fern Psaronius. Proc. 18th Ind. Sci. Cong. Nagpur, p. 270.
  • 1931. Materials for a monograph of the Indian petrified palms. Proc. Acad. Sci. U.P. 1, 140–144.
  • 1932. Homoxylon rajmalzalense gen. et sp. nov., a fossil angiospermous wood, devoid of vessels, from the Rajmahal Hills, Behar. Mem. Geol. Sura. Ind. Pal. Ind. 20 (2), 1–19.
  • 1932. A petrified Williamsonia (W. Sewardiana, sp. nov.) from the Rajmahal Hills, India. Mem. Geol. Sura. Ind. Pal. Ind. 20 (3), 1–19.
  • 1933. (With A. R. RAO.) On some Jurassic plants from the Rajmahal hills. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (N.S.), 27 (2), 183–208.
  • 1933. Explosive fruits in Viscum japonicum Thunb. J. Ind. Bat. Soc. 12 (2), 96–101.
  • 1934. (With B. P. SRIVASTAVTA) The silicified flora of the Deccan Intertrappean Series. Pt. 3. Sausarospermum Fermori. gen. et sp. nov. Proc. 21st Ind. Sci. Cong. Bombay, p. 318.
  • 1934. Dr S. K. Mukerji, F.L.S. (1896–1934). (Obituary.) J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 13 (3), 245–249.
  • 1934. (With A. R. RAO.) Rajmahalia paradoxa gen. et sp. nov. and other Jurassic plants from the Rajmahal hills. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 1 (6), 258–269.
  • 1934. Dr Dukinfied Henry Scott. (Obituary). Curr. Sci. 2 (lo), 392–395.
  • 1934. The Deccan Traps: Are they Cretaceous or Tertiary? Curr. Sci. 3 (lo), 392–395.
  • 1935. The relations of the Indian Gondwana flora with those of Siberia and China. Proc. 2nd Cong. of Curb. Stratig. Heerlen, Holland. Compte Rendti I,517–518.
  • 1935. Homoxylon and related woods and the origin of angiosperms. Proc. 6th Int. Bat. Cong. Amsterdam, 2, 237–238.
  • 1935. The Glossopteris flora in India. Proc. 6th Int. Bat. Cong. Amsterdam, 2, 245–248.
  • 1936. The Karewas of Kashmir. Curr. Sci. 5 (I), 10–16.
  • 1936. The Himalayan uplift since the advent of Man: its culthistorical significance. Curr. Sci. 5 (I), 10–16.
  • 1936. A clay seal and sealing of the Shunga period from the Khokra Kot mound (Rohtak). Curr. Sci. 5 (2), 80–81.
  • 1936. A supposed Sanskrit seal from Rohtak: A correction. Curr. Sci. 5 (4), 206–215.
  • 1936. Wegener's theory of continental drift in the light of palaeobotanical evidence. J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 15 (5), 319–322.
  • 1936. The Gondwana affinities of the Angara flora in the light of geological evidence. Nature, 138 (3499, 720–721.
  • 1937. Speculations on the climates of the Lower Gondwanas of India. Proc. 17th Int. Geol. Cong. Moscow, pp. 217–218.
  • 1937. An appreciation of the late Sir J. C. Bose. Sci. & Cult. 31 (6), 346–347.
  • 1937. Professor K. K. Mathur. (Obituary). Curr. Sci. 5 (7), 365–366.
  • 1937. Revolutions in the plant world. (Pres. Add.) Proc. Nut. Acad. Sci. Ind. 46–60.
  • 1937. The age of the Deccan Trap. (General Discussion.) Proc. 24th Ind. Sci. Cong. Hyderabad, pp. 464–468.
  • 1937. Wegener's theory of continental drift with reference to India and adjacent countries. (General discussion.) Proc. 24th Ind. Sci. Cong. Hyderabad, pp. 502–506.
  • 1938. (With K. P. RODE.)Fossil plants from the Deccan Intertrappean beds at Mohgaon Kalan, C.P., with a note on the geological position of the plant-bearing beds. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Ind. 7 (3), 165–174.
  • 1938. Recent advances in Indian Palaeobotany. (Pres. Add. Botany Section.) Proc. 25th Ind. Sci. Cong. Jubil. Sess. Calcutta (2), 133–176; and Luck. Univ. Stud. (2), 1–100.
  • 1940. The Deccan Traps: an episode of the Tertiary era. (Gen. Pres. Add.) 27th Ind. Sci. Cong. Mad. (2), pp. 1–21. Prakrati, 3 (I), 15–35. 1944 (Gujrati trans.). Prabuddha Karnataka, 22 (2), 5–19 (Kanares trans. by H. S. Rao).
  • 1941. Permanent labels for microscope slides. Curr. Sci. 10 (1 I), 485–486.
  • 1942. 'A short history of the plant sciences' and 'The cytoplasm of the plant cell'. Reviews. Curr. Sci. 11 (9), 369–372.
  • 1944. (With B. S. TRIVEDI.) The age of the Saline Series in the Punjab Salt Range. Nature, 153, 54.
  • 1945. The technique of casting coins in ancient India. Mem. Numis. Sac. Ind. (I), 1–68.
  • 1945. Obituary Note o

参考文献[編集]

  1. ^ a b c Thomas, H. H. (1950). “Birbal Sahni. 1891-1949”. Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 7 (19): 264. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1950.0017. 
  2. ^ Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, on line.
  3. ^ R. Cuneo, S. Archangelsky (1986). “Ferugliocladaceae, a new conifer family from the Permian of Gondwana”. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 51 (1–3): 3–30. doi:10.1016/0034-6667(87)90016-9. http://www.springerlink.com/content/wg8102531u8x5155/ 2012年2月14日閲覧。. 
  4. ^ Rothwell, Gar W (1982). “New interpretations of the earliest conifers”. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 37 (1–2): 7–28. doi:10.1016/0034-6667(82)90035-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0034666782900355 2012年2月14日閲覧。. 
  5. ^ A. Doyle, James; J. Donoghue, Michael (1986). “Seed plant phylogeny and the origin of angiosperms: An experimental cladistic approach”. THE BOTANICAL REVIEW 52 (4): 321–431. doi:10.1007/bf02861082. http://www.springerlink.com/content/wg8102531u8x5155/ 2012年2月14日閲覧。.