^McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner pp. 425-426.
^NSF International Determination of Gingerols and Shogaols in Zingiber officinale rhizome and powdered extract by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
^Ula (1996), op. cit. "The HPLC measures the capsaicinoid(s) in ppm, which can then be converted to Scoville units using a conversion factor of 15, 20 or 30 depending on the capsaicinoid." This would make capsaicin 15,000,000 SHU.