モリニュクス問題

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モリニュクス問題(モリニュクスもんだい、Molyneux's Problemモリニュー問題)とは、哲学の未解決問題英語版の一つである。ジョン・ロックの『人間悟性論』への応答として、科学者・政治家であったウィリアム・モリノーは、ロックの経験論に対し、知覚の様式と事実の理解が齟齬をきたす問題を提示した。彼が述べた問題の概要は、以下のようなものである;"球体と立方体を触覚的に判別できる先天盲者が開眼手術を受けたとき、盲人は視覚的に球体と立方体を判別できるか?"[1]

この問題は、当時の多くの著名な思想家によって検討され、さまざまな結論が提示された。ロック自身は、視覚と触覚は全く異なる感覚であるため、先天盲者は開眼した時点では視覚によって球体と立方体を弁別することはできないと考えた。

類似した問題は、12世紀初期にイブン・トファイル(アブバーケル)によっても提示された。これは、彼の著書『ヤクザーンの子ハイイ』(小説形式の哲学書)に見える。しかしながら、トファイルは主として形ではなく色を扱ったという違いがある[2][3]

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参考文献[編集]

  1. ^ John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, book 2, chapter 9:[1]

    "I shall here insert a problem of that very ingenious and studious promoter of real knowledge, the learned and worthy Mr. Molyneux, which he was pleased to send me in a letter some months since; and it is this:- "Suppose a man born blind, and now adult, and taught by his touch to distinguish between a cube and a sphere of the same metal, and nighly of the same bigness, so as to tell, when he felt one and the other, which is the cube, which the sphere. Suppose then the cube and sphere placed on a table, and the blind man be made to see: quaere, whether by his sight, before he touched them, he could now distinguish and tell which is the globe, which the cube?" To which the acute and judicious proposer answers, "Not. For, though he has obtained the experience of how a globe, how a cube affects his touch, yet he has not yet obtained the experience, that what affects his touch so or so, must affect his sight so or so; or that a protuberant angle in the cube, that pressed his hand unequally, shall appear to his eye as it does in the cube."- I agree with this thinking gentleman, whom I am proud to call my friend, in his answer to this problem; and am of opinion that the blind man, at first sight, would not be able with certainty to say which was the globe, which the cube, whilst he only saw them; though he could unerringly name them by his touch, and certainly distinguish them by the difference of their figures felt. This I have set down, and leave with my reader, as an occasion for him to consider how much he may be beholden to experience, improvement, and acquired notions, where he thinks he had not the least use of, or help from them. And the rather, because this observing gentleman further adds, that "having, upon the occasion of my book, proposed this to divers very ingenious men, he hardly ever met with one that at first gave the answer to it which he thinks true, till by hearing his reasons they were convinced."

  2. ^ Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Tufayl and Leon Gauthier (1981), Risalat Hayy ibn Yaqzan, p. 5, Editions de la Mediterranee:[2]

    "If you want a comparison that will make you clearly grasp the difference between the perception, such as it is understood by that sect [the Sufis] and the perception as others understand it, imagine a person born blind, endowed however with a happy natural temperament, with a lively and firm intelligence, a sure memory, a straight sprite, who grew up from the time he was an infant in a city where he never stopped learning, by means of the senses he did dispose of, to know the inhabitants individually, the numerous species of beings, living as well as non-living, there, the streets and sidestreets, the houses, the steps, in such a manner as to be able to cross the city without a guide, and to recognize immediately those he met; the colors alone would not be known to him except by the names they bore, and by certain definitions that designated them. Suppose that he had arrived at this point and suddenly, his eyes were opened, he recovered his view, and he crosses the entire city, making a tour of it. He would find no object different from the idea he had made of it; he would encounter nothing he didn’t recognize, he would find the colors conformable to the descriptions of them that had been given to him; and in this there would only be two new important things for him, one the consequence of the other: a clarity, a greater brightness, and a great voluptuousness."

  3. ^ Diana Lobel (2006), A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Ba??ya Ibn Paq?da's Duties of the Heart, p. 24, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0812239539.

外部リンク(英語)[編集]