ランスロット・ホグベン

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ランスロット・トマス・ホグベン1895年12月9日 - 1975年8月22日)は、イギリス動物学者遺伝学者

『百万人の数学』『市民の科学』をはじめ、科学・数学・言語の啓蒙書の執筆者としてよく知られる。マルクス主義者でもあり独立労働党でも活動、人工言語・インターグロッサの考案者である。妻は、数学者・統計学者でフェミニストのエニッド・チャールズ

ポーツマスプリマス・ブレザレンの家庭に生まれる。ハンプシャーのサウスシーで育ったが、やがて一家はロンドンに移住。トッテンハム・カウンティー・スクールを経てケンブリッジ大学トリニティ・カレッジで医学生として遺伝学を学び、1915年に学位を取得。社会主義者としての確信を得ていたので、ケンブリッジ大学のファビアン協会を社会主義協会に改組している。

第1次世界大戦中は良心的兵役拒否者となり、1916年に収監。刑期中にフランス赤十字の活動に従事した。1917年に出獄しエニッドと結婚。大戦後暫くはロンドンで大学講師として糊口を凌ぐも、1922年にエジンバラ大学の動物飼育研究部門に移籍。マギル大学を経て、1927年にケープタウン大学の動物学の教員となる。ケープタウン大学では、内分泌学に取り組む傍らアフリカツメガエルの生殖を研究し、妊娠検査に基礎的な功績を残した。

1930年にロンドン・スクール・オブ・エコノミクスに移り、社会生物学を担当。1932年にジュリアン・ハクスリーJ・B・S・ホールデンフランシス・アルバート・エリー・クルーとともに実験生物学会を創設し、『実験生物学雑誌』(Journal of Experimental Biology)を創刊した。

According to Gary Werskey, Hogben was the only one of the four not holding some eugenicist ideas. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1936. The citation read

Distinguished for his work in Experimental Zoology, especially in respect of the mechanism of colour change in Amphibia and Reptilia. He has published a series of important papers on the effect of hormones on the pigmentary effector system and on the reproductive cycle of vertebrates, and has worked on many branches of comparative physiology. More recently he has made substantial contributions to genetics, especially with regard to man.

The social biology position at the LSE was funded by the Rockefeller Foundation and when it withdrew funding Hogben moved, becoming Regius Professor of Natural History at the University of Aberdeen in 1937. Hogben produced two best-selling works of popular science, Mathematics for the Million (1936) and Science for the Citizen (1938). These were big ambitious books. While at Aberdeen Hogben developed an interest in language. Besides editing The Loom of Language by his friend Frederick Bodmer, he created an international language, Interglossa, as ‘a draft of an auxiliary for a democratic world order’.

During World War II Hogben had responsibility for the British Army's medical statistics. He was Mason Professor of Zoology at the University of Birmingham 1941-1947 and professor of medical statistics there 1947-1961, when he retired. He then took a position at the University of Guyana.

著作[編集]

  • Exiles of the Snow, and Other Poems (1918)
  • An Introduction to Recent Advances in Comparative Physiology (1924) with Frank R. Winton
  • The Pigmentary Effector System. A review of the physiology of colour response (1924)
  • Comparative Physiology (1926)
  • Comparative Physiology of Internal Secretion (1927)
  • The Nature of Living Matter (1930)
  • Genetic Principles in Medical and Social Science (1931)
  • Mathematics for the Million (1936)
  • The Retreat from Reason (1936) Conway Memorial Lecture May 20, 1936
  • Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery (1938)
  • Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies (1938) editor
  • Dangerous Thoughts (1939)
  • Author in Transit (1940)
  • Principles of Animal Biology (1940
  • Interglossa: A Draft of an Auxiliary for a Democratic world order, Being an Attempt to Apply Semantic Principles to Language Design (1943)
  • The Loom of Language by Frederick Bodmer (1944) editor
  • An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics (1946)
  • History of the Homeland The Story of the British Background: by Henry Hamilton (1947) editor, No. 4 of Primers for the Age of Plenty
  • From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication (1949)
  • Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (1950)
  • Man Must Measure: The Wonderful World of Mathematics (1955)
  • Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviorist viewpoint (1957)
  • The Wonderful World Of Energy (1957)
  • The Signs of Civilisation (1959)
  • The Wonderful World Of Communication (1959)
  • Mathematics In The Making (1961)
  • Essential World English (1963) with Jane Hogben and Maureen Cartwright
  • Science in Authority: Essays (1963)
  • The Mother Tongue (1965)
  • Whales for the Welsh - A Tale of War and Peace with Notes for those who Teach or Preach (1967)
  • Beginnings and Blunders or Before Science Began (1970)
  • The Vocabulary Of Science (1970) with Maureen Cartwright
  • Astronomer Priest and Ancient Mariner (1972)
  • Maps, Mirrors and Mechanics (1973)
  • Columbus, the Cannon Ball and the Common Pump (1974)
  • How The World Was Explored, editor, with Marie Neurath and J. A. Lauwerys
  • Lancelot Hogben: Scientific Humanist (1998) autobiography, edited by Adrian Hogben and Anne Hogben

References[編集]

  • Robert Bud, ‘Hogben, Lancelot Thomas (1895–1975)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 31 Dec 2005
  • The Visible College (1978) Gary Werskey

外部リンク[編集]

For a tribute to Mathematics for the Million from Fields medallist David Mumford

Some of the correspondence between Hogben and R. A. Fisher is available online