納速剌丁

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
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納速剌丁(拼音: Nàsùládīng; ナースィルッディーン; ? - 1292年歿)は、元朝の官僚で、雲南陝西を治めた回回人賽典赤贍思丁(サイイド・シャムスッディーン)の長子で、ビルマ遠征などで武勲を立てた(#生涯)。陝西などに納速剌丁の後裔と称する回族の家系が存在する(#後裔)。

史料[編集]

正史では、『元史』第194巻、列伝82に伝記が立てられている[1]。『新元史』にも列伝52に伝記が立てられている[2]マルコ・ポーロの『東方見聞録』の第2巻第52章には "NESCRADIN" という人物に関する記述があり、その記載内容から『元史』に記載の納速剌丁と同一人物であることが明らかである[3][4][5][6]

生涯[編集]

納速剌丁の父は、モンゴルのチンギス・ハーンに仕えた色目人賽典赤贍思丁(サイイド・アジャッル・シャムスッディーン・ウマル・ブハーリー。以下「サイイド・アジャッル」と呼ぶ。)である[7][8]。サイイド・アジャッルは、ホラズムブハラに生まれたイスラーム教徒であり、9歳前後の頃、祖父が一族と共にモンゴルに帰順した際に半ば人質としてチンギス・ハーンの親衛隊(ケシク, kesig)に入った人物である[7][9]。なお、「賽典・赤贍思丁」は「サイイド・シャムスッディーン」に漢字をあてたものであり、「納速剌丁」は「ナースィルッディーン」(アラビア語: ناصرالدین‎, ラテン文字転写: Nāṣir al-Dīn)に漢字をあてたものである[7][8]

サイイド・アジャッルは、至元11年(1273年)にクビライ・ハーンにより雲南に送り込まれた[7]。雲南地方は、1253年の大理国征服をうけてモンゴルの名目的支配下にあったが、いまだ統治が確立されていなかったため、1260年代後半にトゥクルク(宗王脱忽魯)が南征していた[7][10]。先に雲南に入っていたトゥクルクは自分の軍権が必ず奪われるものと解釈して軍備を整えたが、サイイド・アジャッルは自身の息子、納速剌丁を使者としてトゥクルクの下に派遣することで誤解をといた[7][11]。サイイド・アジャッルは自身と息子の納速剌丁、それにトゥクルク配下の2名を加えてトゥクルクの雲南統治の補佐とすることとして、元朝高官同士の衝突を回避した[7][12]

マルコ・ポーロによると、ナスルッディーンは1277年(これは誤りで実際は1284年)に軍を率いてビルマに攻め入り、ビルマ人をやぶったという

ナスルッディーンは、元朝が指名した最初の統治者である父の死後、その跡を継ぎ[13]、1279年から1284年までその地位にあった[14]。1284年にビルマ進攻に従軍するが、これが原因で雲南統治の任を解かれた[15]

モンゴルが安南を攻めたとき、ナスルッディーンは雲南で、土蛮の一つ、金歯中国語版と戦った。その後ナスルッディーンは陝西に派遣される[16]。ナスルッディーンの息子のウマル(烏馬兒 (Wu-ma-r))は安南進攻に加わった。

ナスルッディーンは1292年に亡くなる[17]。弟のフサインが雲南宣尉となった[18]

後裔[編集]

サイイド・アジャッルの子孫は雲南に根を張り、中国のムスリムに大きな影響を与えた[19]。雲南におけるイスラームの普及は、サイイド・アジャッルとナスルッディーン父子によるものが大きい。

ナスルッディーンは、ビルマにおける雲南の回回人の末裔である潘泰人中国語版の先祖であるとされている。

寧夏の回族には、この地方に多い納、速、剌、丁(Na, Su, La, Ding)の姓が、それぞれ Nasr al-Din (Nasruddin) の漢字音訳を分解したものであるという言い伝えがある[20][21][22]福建省陳埭中国語版の丁氏は、ナスルッディーンの子孫を名乗っている[23]。陳埭丁氏は華僑として海を渡り、台湾、フィリピン、マレーシアに分布する。子孫の中にはもはやイスラームを信仰していない者もいるが、回族としてのアイデンティティを保っている。1931年にアズハル・モスクに留学した納忠(Na Zhong)はナスルッディーンの子孫とされる[24]

漢族と同様に、回族も輩行字を名づけに用いる習慣があり、回族の中ではこれを lunzi paibie と呼ぶ[25]


出典[編集]

  1. ^ 『元史』巻194、列伝第82
  2. ^ 『新元史』列伝52
  3. ^ 『東方見聞録』第2巻第52章(H. Yule による英語訳)
  4. ^ Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville; Stuart C. Munro-Hay (2006). Islam: an illustrated history (illustrated, revised ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 226. ISBN 0-8264-1837-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=__Q1gOeoJZcC&pg=PA228&dq=mosque+ningpo&hl=en&ei=fwncTbrtFce90AG2uM3GDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwATge#v=onepage&q=sayyid%20ajall%20shams%20al%20din%20umar%20son%20nasr%20al%20din&f=false 2011年7月17日閲覧. "Yunnan - centuries later destined to achieve a brief autonomy as a rebellious Muslim state ~is said, after the Mongol conquest, to have been given to Sayyid Ajall Shams al-Din 'Umar as governor, who introduced Islam there. His son Nasr al-Din's victory over the king of Mien (Burma, now Myanmar) was recorded by Marco Polo (1277)" 
  5. ^ M. Th Houtsma (1993). First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936. BRILL. p. 847. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=rezD7rvuf9YC&pg=PA847&lpg=PA847&dq=nasr+al+din+yunnan&source=bl&ots=DYfi_EcIW-&sig=29-MevyOgyWHuB4RZszcfDYmPug&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Vnf7TtT-EaPz0gGZ-vCOAg&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=nasr%20al%20din%20yunnan&f=false 2011年12月20日閲覧. "Cingiz Khan took as one of his officers a man who was said to come from Bukhara and claimed to be a descendant of the Prophet, namely Shams al-Din 'Omar, known as Saiyid-i Adjall. . . with notices of his sons Nasir al-Din, the Nescradin of Marco Polo, and Husain. . . According to Fa-Hsiang, Saiyid-i Adjall was the fifth descendant of a certain Su Fei-erh (Sufair?) and 26th in line from the Prophet. . . appointed him governor of Yunnan to restore order there. He was afterwards also given the honorary title "Prince of Hsien Yang". He left five sons and nineteen grandsons. Lepage rightly doubts the authenticity of the genealogical table in Fa-Hsiang. . . According to the usual statements Saiyid-i Adjall came originally from Bukhara and governed Yunnan from 1273 till his death in 1279; he was buried in Wo-erh-to near his capital. His tomb here with its inscriptions was first discovered by the d'Ollone expedition and aroused great interest particularly aas there was a second tomb, also with inscription, in Singan-fu. It has now been ascertained that the second grave in Shensi is a cenotaph which only contained the court-dress of the dead governor. . . Among the further descendants may be mentioned Ma Chu (c. 1630–1710) (in the fourteenth generation) who was a learned scholar and published his famous work "The Magnetic Needle of Islam" in 1685; he supervised the renovation of the tomb and temple of his ancestor Saiyid-i Adjall; one of the inscriptions on the tomb is by him. The present head of the family is Na Wa-Ch'ing, Imam of a mosque in the province (d'Ollone, p. 182)" 
  6. ^ ( )E. J. van Donzel (1994). E. J. van Donzel. ed. Islamic desk reference (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 67. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=zHxsWspxGIIC&pg=PA67&dq=nasr+al+din+yunnan&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IH77To_CMqT10gHOv_y6Ag&ved=0CFwQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=nasr%20al%20din%20yunnan&f=false 2011年12月20日閲覧. "Genghis Khan took as one of his officers Shams al-Din 'Umar, known as Sayyid-i Ajall, who was said to come from Bukhara and claimed to be a descendant of the Prophet. According to the usual statements, Sayyid-i Ajall governed Yunnan from 1273 till his death in 1279. The main credit for the dissemination of Islam in Yunnan is ascribed to Sayyid-i Ajall's son, Nasir al-Din (the Nescradin of Marco Polo; d. 1292). A further descendant was Ma Chu (c. 1630–1710) who published a famous work, called "The Magnetic Needle of Islam"." 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Lane, George (June 29, 2011). “SAYYED AJALL”. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sayyed-ajall 2019年11月11日閲覧。. 
  8. ^ a b Morris Rossabi (28 November 2014). From Yuan to Modern China and Mongolia: The Writings of Morris Rossabi. BRILL. pp. 271–272. ISBN 978-90-04-28529-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=GXejBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA271&lpg=PA271#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  9. ^ Arnold, Thomas Walker (1896). The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith. WESTMINSTER: A. Constable and co.. p. 248. https://books.google.com/books?id=&pg=PAPA248.  (Original from the University of California)
  10. ^ 『元史』巻125、列伝第12、賽典赤贍思丁伝
  11. ^ 『元史』巻125、列伝第12、賽典赤贍思丁伝
  12. ^ 『元史』巻125、列伝第12、賽典赤贍思丁伝
  13. ^ (Original from the University of Virginia)Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmiʻat al-Malik ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz. Maʻhad Shuʻūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah (1986). Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7-8. The Institute. p. 385. https://books.google.com/books?ei=Rn77ToqsEabe0QHGxJAS&id=0FFTAAAAYAAJ&dq=Nasir+al-Din+%28Ch.+Na-su-la-ting%2C+the+%22Nescradin%22+of+Marco+Polo%29%2C+who+governed+Yunnan+between+1279+and+I2844.+Whilst+Arab+and+South+Asian+Muslims%2C+pioneers+of+the+maritime+expansion+of+Islam+in+the+Bay+of+Bengal%2C+must+have+visited+the&q=son+Nasir 2011年12月20日閲覧. "On his death he was succeeded by his eldest son, Nasir al-Din (Ch. Na-su-la-ting, the "Nescradin" of Marco Polo), who governed Yunnan between 1279 and I284. Whilst Arab and South Asian Muslims, pioneers of the maritime expansion of Islam in the Bay of Bengal, must have visited the" 
  14. ^ (Original from Indiana University)Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs (1986). Journal, Volume 7. King Abdulaziz University. https://books.google.com/books?id=DVMLAQAAMAAJ&q=Nasir+al-Din+(Ch.+Na-su-la-ting,+the+%22Nescradin%22+of+Marco+Polo),+who+governed+Yunnan+between+1279+and+12844.+Whilst+Arab+and+South+Asian+Muslims,+pioneers+of+the+maritime+expansion+of+Islam+in+the+Bay+of+Bengal,+must+have+visited+the&dq=Nasir+al-Din+(Ch.+Na-su-la-ting,+the+%22Nescradin%22+of+Marco+Polo),+who+governed+Yunnan+between+1279+and+12844.+Whilst+Arab+and+South+Asian+Muslims,+pioneers+of+the+maritime+expansion+of+Islam+in+the+Bay+of+Bengal,+must+have+visited+the&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qX77Tsb1OIrV0QHohNXRAg&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA 2011年12月20日閲覧. "Nasir al-Din (Ch. Na-su-la-ting, the "Nescradin" of Marco Polo), who governed Yunnan between 1279 and 12844. Whilst Arab and South Asian Muslims, pioneers of the maritime expansion of Islam in the Bay of Bengal, must have visited the" 
  15. ^ ( )Thant Myint-U (2011). Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia. Macmillan. ISBN 1-4668-0127-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=FE9taNzMa5IC&pg=PT238&dq=nasr+al+din+yunnan&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IH77To_CMqT10gHOv_y6Ag&ved=0CFAQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=nasr%20al%20din%20yunnan&f=false 2011年12月20日閲覧. "In this way, Yunnan became known to the Islamic world. When Sayyid Ajall died in 1279 he was succeeded by his son Nasir al-Din who governed for five years and led the invasion of Burma. His younger brother became the Transport Commissioner and the entire family entrenched their influence." 
  16. ^ ( )Stephen G. Haw (2006). Marco Polo's China: a Venetian in the realm of Khubilai Khan. Volume 3 of Routledge studies in the early history of Asia (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-415-34850-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=CdE6Q_2yICIC&pg=PA164&dq=nasr+al+din+yunnan&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IH77To_CMqT10gHOv_y6Ag&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=nasr%20al%20din%20yunnan&f=false 2011年12月20日閲覧. "Nasir al-Din (Nasulading) was the eldest son of Sa'id Ajall Shams al-Din (see Chapter 7) and followed his father in holding high office in the government of Yunnan. He led campaigns to subjugate various peoples of the province, including the Gold Teeth, and also commanded the invasion of Mien and took part in fighting in Annam. He was rewarded with titles and gifts of money for his prowess. In 1291, he was moved to the government of Shaanxi province, but died of illness the following year (YS: liezhuan 12, 1936). He did not, in fact, command the Mongol army that defeated the invasion by the King of Mien in 1277, as Marco state (MP/Lathan: 185; MP/Hambis: 310). He did, however, lead the attack on Mien immediately afterwards that followed up the defeat of the King's army (see Chapter 7)." 
  17. ^ Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David. Traders of the Golden Triangle. Cognoscenti Books. p. 284. ISBN 1300701463. https://books.google.com/books?id=YlmDgbdfgKsC&pg=PT42#v=onepage&q&f=false 2011年12月20日閲覧。. 
  18. ^ ( )Raphael Israeli (2002). Islam in China: religion, ethnicity, culture, and politics. Lexington Books. p. 284. ISBN 0-7391-0375-X. https://books.google.com/books?id=KoiD_yafPT8C&pg=PA284&dq=nasr+al+din+yunnan&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IH77To_CMqT10gHOv_y6Ag&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=nasr%20al%20din%20yunnan&f=false 2011年12月20日閲覧. "Sayyid Adjall probably did much for the spread of Islam in Yunnan, but it is his son Nasir al-Din who is given the main credit for its spread there. The latter had been governor of Shenxi, and when he died in Yunnan as governor there in 1292, he was succeeded by his brother Husayn. Other sons of Sayyid Adjall and their sons in turn hold high office under the Yuan emperors, and the family remained famous in Chinese life. Thus the famous scholar Ma Zhu (Mazhu) (c. 1630–1710) supervised the renovation" 
  19. ^ Arthur Evans Moule (1914). The Chinese people: a handbook on China .... LONDON : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Northumberland Avenue W.C. : 43 Queen Victoria Street. E.C.: Society for promoting Christian knowledge. p. 317. https://books.google.com/books?id=ZBYcQ5mnr34C&pg=PA317&dq=mosque+ningpo&hl=en&ei=VwrcTdTRPOLf0QG_7tC5Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAjgy#v=onepage&q&f=false 2011年7月17日閲覧. "their Mosques at Ganfu (Canton) during the T'ang dynasty (618–907 AD) is certain, and later they spread to Ch'iian-chou and to Kan-p'u, Hangchow, and perhaps to Ningpo and Shanghai. These were not preaching or proselytising inroads, but commercial enterprises, and in the latter half of the eighth century there were Moslem troops in Shensi, 3,000 men, under Abu Giafar, coming to support the dethroned Emperor in AD 756. In the thirteenth century the influence of individual Moslems was immense, especially that of the Seyyid Edjell Shams ed-Din Omar, who served the Mongol Khans till his death in Yunnan AD 1279. His family still exists in Yunnan, and has taken a prominent part in Moslem affairs in China. The present Moslem element in China is most numerous in Yunnan and Kansu; and the most learned Moslems reside chiefly in Ssuch'uan, the majority of their books being printed in the capital city, Ch'eng-tu. Kansu is perhaps the most dominantly Mohammedan province in China, and here many different sects are found, and mosques with minarets used by the orthodox muezzin calling to prayer, and in one place veiled women are met with. These, however, are not Turks or Saracens, but for the most part pure Chinese. The total Moslem population is probably under 4,000,000, though other statistical estimates, always uncertain in China, vary from thirty to ten millions; but the figures given here are the most reliable at present obtainable, and when it is remembered that Islam in China has not been to any great extent a preaching or propagandist power by" (Original from Harvard University)
  20. ^ Dillon, Michael (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC. 
  21. ^ ( )Meaghan Morris; Brett De Bary (2001). Meaghan Morris. ed. "Race" panic and the memory of migration. Volume 2 of Traces (Ithaca, N.Y.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 297. ISBN 962-209-561-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=7uEUL374LQgC&pg=PT314&dq=nasr+al+din+yunnan&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IH77To_CMqT10gHOv_y6Ag&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=nasr%20al%20din%20yunnan&f=false 2011年12月20日閲覧. "In addition to the Muslim soldiers and officials who had arrived with the Mongol forces in Yunnan in 1253, many other Muslims settled here as well, and within 50 years the Muslim population of the region was sufficiently large to be noted by both Rashid al-Din (the Persian historian) and Marco Polo in their writings. . . Among Sayyid 'Ajall's twelve sons and numerous grandsons, many served throughout China and there are Muslim communities scattered across the country who can trace their genealogies back to him. The largest number, however, remained in Yunnan. His eldest son, Nasir al-Din (Ch. Na-su-la-ding), also held a high office in Yunnan, and is commonly credited with providing the source for traditional Han Chinese surnames that all Muslims were required by the state to adopt during the Ming period (1368–1644). In Yunnan, after Ma (the surname which derives from the transliteration of the name of the Prophet Mohammad) the most common surnames for Muslims are Na, Su, La, and Ding." 
  22. ^ 新华网宁夏频道”. www.nx.xinhuanet.com. 2019年11月11日閲覧。
  23. ^ Angela Schottenhammer (2008). Angela Schottenhammer. ed. The East Asian Mediterranean: Maritime Crossroads of Culture, Commerce and Human Migration. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 123. ISBN 3-447-05809-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=GSA_AaRdgioC&pg=PA123&dq=ming+empire,+patron+of+islam+in+china+and+southeast+and+west+asia&hl=en&ei=SszhTfraO8fg0QGR-_2HBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=ming%20empire%2C%20patron%20of%20islam%20in%20china%20and%20southeast%20and%20west%20asia&f=false 2010年6月28日閲覧。. 
  24. ^ 玉溪《使者》” (2005年2月24日). 2019年11月11日閲覧。
  25. ^ Susan Debra Blum, Lionel M. Jensen (2002). China off center: mapping the margins of the middle kingdom (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-8248-2577-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=pA_MP4Q11qgC&pg=PA121&dq=ma+surname+hui&hl=en&ei=24OgTf7RDuGH0QH-xvmKBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=ma%20surname%20hui&f=false 2011年4月9日閲覧。. 

知的財産権に関する表示。

  •  1896年に出たSir Thomas Walker Arnold著の「The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith」は現在アメリカ合衆国ではパブリックドメインとなっています。
  •  1914年に出たArthur Evans Moule著の「The Chinese people: a handbook on China ...」は現在アメリカ合衆国ではパブリックドメインとなっています。
  •  1876年に出たRoyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North-China Branch著の「Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 10」は現在アメリカ合衆国ではパブリックドメインとなっています。
  •  1876年に出たE. Bretschneider著の「Notices of the mediaeval geography and history of central and western Asia」は現在アメリカ合衆国ではパブリックドメインとなっています。
  •  1876年に出たRoyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. China Branch, Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society著の「Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 10」は現在アメリカ合衆国ではパブリックドメインとなっています。