^Botting, p. 49; Konstam, p. 99; Johnson (1726), p. 331.
^Giles Milton, White Gold (2004), p. 9:
"The flags on their mainmasts depicted a human skull on a dark green background - the menacing symbol of a new and terrible enemy. It was the third week of July 1625, and England was about to be attacked by the Islamic corsairs of Barbary."
^Mary Frear Keeler (ed.), Sir Francis Drake's West Indian Voyage, 1585-86 (1981), p. 161, footnote 3.
^BnF, Manuscrit Français 385, f. 25, digitised on Gallica; For a translation in English, see Pirate Flags Pirate Mythtory. Archived January 21, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.: "And we put down our white flag, and raised a red flag with a Skull head on it and two crossed bones (all in white and in the middle of the flag), and then we marched on."