揚州大虐殺

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揚州大虐殺(ようしゅうだいぎゃくさつ)とは、中国の揚州で起こった大量虐殺760年の田神功によるペルシア人やイスラム商人虐殺や、1645年南明戦争で起こった虐殺などがある。

760年の揚州虐殺[編集]

760年時代に、安史の乱李希烈の乱[1]平定に参与した田神功(?-774年)が、揚州で掠奪し、胡人ペルシア人商人イスラム教徒(大食)[2]などの外国人を数千人虐殺した[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

旧唐書』にはこのように記録されている。

上元元年,為平盧節度都知兵馬使,兼鴻臚卿,於鄭州破賊四千余眾,生擒逆賊大將四人,牛馬器械不可勝數。尋為鄧景山所引,至揚州,大掠百姓商人資產,郡內比屋發掘略遍,商胡波斯被殺者數千人 — 『旧唐書』列伝第七十四、田神功伝

また、878年から879年にかけて黄巣広州市外国人商人を襲撃した[5][4]。イスラム商人、ユダヤ人キリスト教徒パールシー教徒も殺害され[4][14] 、犠牲者は12万人から20万人にものぼるとされる[12][15]

1645年の揚州虐殺(揚州十日)[編集]

揚州虐殺(揚州十日)

1645年(順治2)陰暦4月から5月にかけて、ヌルハチ第15子の予親王多鐸(ドド)軍が、南明史可法軍と戦闘した際に、揚州で大規模な殺戮を行い、死者は80万人にのぼった[16][17]。予親王多鐸(ドド)軍は弘光帝のいた南京も陥落し、弘光帝は翌年北京で処刑された。

『揚州十日記』では虐殺80万とされるが、当時の揚州の人口は20万以上ではなかったので、数字は誇張されていると指摘されている[18]

反清復明運動への影響[編集]

清軍の残虐行為を描いた『揚州十日記』や朱子素『嘉定屠城紀略』は、「反清復明」「滅満興漢」のスローガンとともに辛亥革命にいたる反清運動でよく読まれた[19][20][21]

同時代の四川大虐殺[編集]

また、同時代明末には李自成の乱や、張献忠が大西政権を樹立したため[22]、清は張献忠討伐のために1644年から1659年まで出兵し、その中で四川大虐殺(屠蜀)が発生した[23][22][24][25]。300万の人口が2万人弱に激減した[26][27]。従来、虐殺は張献忠軍によるとする説が主流であったが、清軍による虐殺とする説もあり、また史料の『蜀碧』は史実ではなく文学的価値しかないとする見解もある[22][28]

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ 新唐書』列伝第一百五十中 逆臣中,李希烈伝
  2. ^ 大食波斯賈胡死者數千人 ; 殺商胡波斯數千人“The “China Seas” in world history: A general outline of the role of Chinese and East Asian maritime space from its origins to c. 1800”. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures 1: 63–86. doi:10.1016/j.imic.2012.11.002. 
  3. ^ 旧唐書』列伝第七十四、田神功伝に「上元元年,為平盧節度都知兵馬使,兼鴻臚卿,於鄭州破賊四千余眾,生擒逆賊大將四人,牛馬器械不可勝數。尋為鄧景山所引,至揚州,大掠百姓商人資產,郡內比屋發掘略遍,商胡波斯被殺者數千人」と記録。Wikisource reference zh. 舊唐書/卷124. - ウィキソース. 
  4. ^ a b c John Guy (1986). John Guy. ed. Oriental trade ceramics in South-East Asia, ninth to sixteenth centuries: with a catalogue of Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai wares in Australian collections (illustrated, revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 7. http://books.google.com/books?ei=EihgT6u4JKrc0QGTnMyXBw&id=GxrrAAAAMAAJ&dq=and+when+massacres+occurred+in+Guangzhou+in+878%2C+a+contemporary+Arab+geographer%2C+Abu+Zaid%2C+recorded+that+%27Muslims%2C+Jews%2C&q=massacres+878+abu+zaid+ 2012年3月12日閲覧. "Tang period onwards, were strong enough to sack that city in 758-9 in an act of frustration prompted by the corruption of Chinese port officials, and escape by sea, probably to Tonkin where they could continue their trading activities.11 The sacking of Yang-chou in 760 by Chinese rebels resulted in the deaths of 'several thousand of Po'ssi and Ta-shih merchants'.12 and when massacres occurred in Guangzhou in 878, a contemporary Arab geographer, Abu Zaid, recorded that 'Muslims, Jews, Christians and Parsees perished'.13" 
  5. ^ a b Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 0521497817. http://books.google.com/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&pg=PA292&dq=The+wealth+of+the+foreign+merchants+established+in+the+big+cities+may+have+provoked+the+xenophobia+that+became+apparent+during+rebellions.+In+760+several+thousand+Arab+and+Persian+merchants+were+massacred+at+Yangchow+by+insurgent+bands+led+by+T'ien+Shen-kung,+and+a+century+later,+in+879,+it+was+also+the+foreign+merchatns+who+were+attacked+at+Canton+under+the+troops+of+Huang+Ch'ao.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fjMWT4vrMMG4twfMqLGOAw&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20wealth%20of%20the%20foreign%20merchants%20established%20in%20the%20big%20cities%20may%20have%20provoked%20the%20xenophobia%20that%20became%20apparent%20during%20rebellions.%20In%20760%20several%20thousand%20Arab%20and%20Persian%20merchants%20were%20massacred%20at%20Yangchow%20by%20insurgent%20bands%20led%20by%20T'ien%20Shen-kung%2C%20and%20a%20century%20later%2C%20in%20879%2C%20it%20was%20also%20the%20foreign%20merchatns%20who%20were%20attacked%20at%20Canton%20under%20the%20troops%20of%20Huang%20Ch'ao.&f=false 2012年1月10日閲覧. "The wealth of the foreign merchants established in the big cities may have provoked the xenophobia that became apparent during rebellions. In 760 several thousand Arab and Persian merchants were massacred at Yangchow by insurgent bands led by T'ien Shen-kung, and a century later, in 879, it was also the foreign merchants who were attacked at Canton under the troops of Huang Ch'ao." 
  6. ^ Yarshater (1993). William Bayne Fisher Yarshater, Ilya Gershevitch. ed. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 553. ISBN 052120092X. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ko_RafMSGLkC&pg=PA553&dq=Probably+by+the+7th+century+Persians+had+joined+with+Arabs+to+create+the+foreign+emporium+on+the+Grand+Canal+at+Yangchou+mentioned+by+the+New+T'ang+History.+The+same+source+records+a+disturbance+there+in+760+in+which+a+thousand+of+the+merchants+were+killed&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0jIWT_PtLpCctwe0_MH7Ag&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Probably%20by%20the%207th%20century%20Persians%20had%20joined%20with%20Arabs%20to%20create%20the%20foreign%20emporium%20on%20the%20Grand%20Canal%20at%20Yangchou%20mentioned%20by%20the%20New%20T'ang%20History.%20The%20same%20source%20records%20a%20disturbance%20there%20in%20760%20in%20which%20a%20thousand%20of%20the%20merchants%20were%20killed&f=false 2012年1月10日閲覧. "Probably by the 7th century Persians had joined with Arabs to create the foreign emporium on the Grand Canal at Yangchou mentioned by the New T'ang History. The same source records a disturbance there in 760 in which a thousand of the merchants were killed." 
  7. ^ Tan Ta Sen; Dasheng Chen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 104. ISBN 9812308377. http://books.google.com/books?id=vIUmU2ytmIIC&pg=PA104&dq=tian+shengong+yangzhou&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iDcWT6f8C8m2gwfUtKn2DQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tian%20shengong%20yangzhou&f=false 2012年1月10日閲覧. "these manliao ( j§ w) [Southern barbarians] would pollute the Chinese culture through intermarriage and upset the land ownership system through land acquisition. . .For example, in AD 760, Yangzhou was attacked by a nearby garrison troop led by Tian Shengong (HJ^ff-w), who was ironically invited by the local authorities to help crush a local uprising. Consequently, a few thousand Arab and Persian merchants were robbed and killed (Jin Tangshu, ch. 110). In the 830s, a mandarin in Guangzhou took steps to control the Arab and Persian Muslims by ordering that Chinese and barbarians must live in separate quarters and must not intermarry; barbarins were also not allowed to own land and paddy fields (Jin Tangshu, ch. 177) Thereafter, Arab and Persian traders lived in designated quarters . . .they also enjoyed religious freedom and kept their Islamic lifestlye intact. . .the Arab and Persian Muslims were also contented to stay out of the Confucian Chinese world so long as the authorities concerned pledged to provide aman [security] for them to lead a peaceful life according to the Islamic doctrines." 
  8. ^ Jacques Gernet (2007) (Spanish). El mundo chino. Editorial Critica. p. 263. ISBN 8484328686. http://books.google.com/books?id=Jd9WP1TKtVYC&pg=PA263&dq=tian+shengong+yangzhou&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iDcWT6f8C8m2gwfUtKn2DQ&ved=0CEYQ6AEwAg# 2012年1月10日閲覧. "en 760, varios millares de mercaderes árabes y persas fueron masacrados en Yangzhou por bandas insurgentes dirigidas por Tian Shengong; un siglo más tarde las tropas de Huang Chao la emprendieron también en Cantón con los mercaderes extranjeros." 
  9. ^ 新江荣「唐研究」北京大學出版社1999,p. 344.
  10. ^ Tan Ta Sen; Abdul Kadir; Abdul Kadir (Malay). Cheng Ho. Penerbit Buku Kompas. p. 143. ISBN 9797094928. http://books.google.com/books?id=V-TbryZleo0C&pg=PA143&dq=tian+shengong+yangzhou&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iDcWT6f8C8m2gwfUtKn2DQ&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=tian%20shengong%20yangzhou&f=false 2012年1月10日閲覧. "Misalnya, pada 760, Yangzhou diserang oleh pasukan tentara di bawah pimpinan Tian Shengong (ffltt^d) yang ironisnya diminta oleh penguasa setempat untuk membantu menumpas pemberontakan daerah. Akibatnya, ribuan saudagar Arab dan Persia dirampok dan dibunuh.22 Pada tahun 830-an, seorang pejabat tinggi di Guangzhou mengambil langkah untuk mengawasi orang orang Muslim Arab dan Persian degan memerintahkan orang China dan orang barbar harus tinggal di pemukiman terpisah dan tidak boleh kawin campur; kaum barbar tidak boleh memiliki tanah dan ladang sawah." 
  11. ^ Jacques Gernet (1972) (Spanish). Le monde chinois (2 ed.). A. Colin. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZdwxAQAAIAAJ&q=tian+shengong+yangzhou&dq=tian+shengong+yangzhou&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iDcWT6f8C8m2gwfUtKn2DQ&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBQ 2012年1月10日閲覧. "milliers de marchands arabes et persans sont massacrés à Yangzhou par les bandes insurgées que mène Tian Shengong; un siècle plus tard, c'est aussi aux marchands étrangers que s'en prennent à Canton les troupes de Huang Chao en 879." 
  12. ^ a b Jonathan Neaman Lipman (1997). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China (illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 27. ISBN 0295976446. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA27&dq=tian+shengong+yangzhou&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iDcWT6f8C8m2gwfUtKn2DQ&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tian%20shengong%20yangzhou&f=false 2012年1月10日閲覧。. 
  13. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (1997). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China (illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 26. ISBN 0295976446. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA26&dq=Ouyang+Xin+Tang+Shu+records+the+order+of+Lu+Jun,+governor+of+Lingnan+at+Canton,+that+foreigners+and+Chinese+could+not+intermarry&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8DgWT6_4K9S_gAeQuIyhAw&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Ouyang%20Xin%20Tang%20Shu%20records%20the%20order%20of%20Lu%20Jun%2C%20governor%20of%20Lingnan%20at%20Canton%2C%20that%20foreigners%20and%20Chinese%20could%20not%20intermarry&f=false 2012年1月10日閲覧. "Ouyang, Xin Tang Shu 182.6b--a records the order of Lu Jun, governor of Lingnan at Canton, that foreigners and Chinese could not intermarry (Ch. Fan Hua bu de tong hun), in order to prevent conflict." 
  14. ^ Edward H. Schafer (1963). The golden peaches of Samarkand: a study of Tʻang exotics (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 23. ISBN 0520054628. http://books.google.com/books?id=jqAGIL02BWQC&pg=PA23#v=onepage&q=massacre%20thousands%20wealthy%20persian%20arab%20traders%20yang-chou&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧。. 
  15. ^ Ismail Haji Salleh (Translated by Haji Hashim bin Samin),A History Of The Arrival And The Development Of Islam In Kedah,Naguib Al-Attas, Raniri and the Wujudiyyah of the 17th Century Acheh (Kuala Lumpur: Monographs of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society,1969,p.11
  16. ^ 世界大百科事典 第2版 日立ソリューションズ・クリエイト
  17. ^ 王秀楚著『揚州十日記』に「初二日,傳府道州縣已置官吏,執安民牌遍諭百姓,毋得驚懼。又諭各寺院僧人焚化積屍;而寺院中藏匿婦女亦復不少,亦有驚餓死者,查焚屍簿載其數,前後 約計八十萬餘,其落井投河,閉戶自焚,及深入自縊者不與焉。」と記録。湖処子  宮崎八百吉訳『揚州十日記・嘉定屠城紀略』広文館、大正12。書誌ID(NDL-OPAC):000000586412 国会図書館。
  18. ^ Struve (1993) (note at p. 269), following a 1964 article by Zhang Defang, notes that the entire city's population at the time was not likely to be more than 300,000, and that of the entire Yangzhou Prefecture, 800,000.
  19. ^ 朱子素, 嘉定屠城紀略’’,梅原郁,世界大百科事典「揚州十日記」。彭遵泗、朱子素、王秀楚著『蜀碧・嘉定屠城紀略・揚州十日記』松枝茂夫訳、平凡社、東洋文庫。
  20. ^ 韓菼, 江陰城守紀
  21. ^ 田中秀雄プロパガンダとしての南京事件
  22. ^ a b c 浅見雅一『教会史料を通してみた張献忠の支配』史学第五十九巻第二・三合併号所収。
  23. ^ 鈴木中正「四川、陝西湖北三省界地方への人口集中と移住民の社会環境」『清朝中期史研究』愛知大学国際問題研究所1952,1971燎原書房.鈴木中正『中国史における革命と宗教』東京大学出版会 (1974)
  24. ^ 岡田英弘、神田信夫、松村潤『紫禁城の栄光』講談社学術文庫 2006
  25. ^ 角山祥道「『蜀碧・嘉定屠城紀略・揚州十日記』 「虐殺=正義」というカラクリ 中国・明代末の虐殺の記録」週間東洋文庫1000,ジャパンナレッジ,2014/04/24
  26. ^ 『明會要』巻50。嘉慶『四川道志』17巻。
  27. ^ 陈世松 “湖广填四川”研究平议、四川省社会科学院、天府新论2005年第3期
  28. ^ 孫次舟『張献忠在蜀事蹟考察』、楊済坤『張献忠屠蜀還是明清統治階級』(『張献忠在四川』、1981年,四川省新華書店、所収)、『張献忠伝論』四川人民出版社、1981.『張献忠大西軍史』湖南人民出版社、1987.

参考文献[編集]

  • 王秀楚『Wikisource reference zh. 揚州十日記. - ウィキソース. 
    • (邦訳)湖処子  宮崎八百吉訳『揚州十日記・嘉定屠城紀略』広文館、大正12。書誌ID(NDL-OPAC):000000586412 国会図書館インターネット公開)
    • (邦訳)彭遵泗、朱子素、王秀楚著『蜀碧・嘉定屠城紀略・揚州十日記』松枝茂夫訳、平凡社、東洋文庫。
    • (英訳)Lynn A. Struve、 Wang Xiuchu, An Account of Ten days at Yangzhou,1993.(Kang-i Sun Chang、Stephen Owen,The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Vol.2,p170)
  • Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers' Jaws, Struve, Lynn A. Yale University Press,1993 (paperback 1998), 312 pages
  • 石平「中国大虐殺史 なぜ中国人はこんなに残酷になれるのか」 ビジネス社 2012.

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