天元 (着点)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
移動先: 案内検索

天元(てんげん)は囲碁用語で、碁盤の中心点のこと。下図黒1の点。

タイトル戦の名称にある天元は、ここからとったものである。

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歴史[編集]

碁盤の目は19×19=361目あるが、これは古代中国五行説でいう一年の360日に対応していた。この余る一目を中央の「天元」に擬して、万物の根源と考えることで数を合わせていたと考えられる。ただし当時天元という言葉はなく、「太極」などと呼ばれていた。天元の名を与えたのは天文学者としても有名であった江戸時代の棋士・二世安井算哲(天文学者としての名は渋川春海)であったと考えられている。

布石における天元[編集]

囲碁の布石においては、をとりやすい小目など隅から打ち始めることがセオリーとされている。しかし碁盤の中央を最初から占める打ち方も、昔から考えられていた。例えば第一着を天元に打ち、後を相手のマネをして点対称の位置に打つ「太閤碁」などがそれである。下図は太閤碁の一例(1929(昭和4)年、呉清源(黒)-木谷實


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しかし専門棋士でこれを最初に試したのは、先の二世算哲であった。彼は当時の最強者・本因坊道策と対戦するにあたり、自らの天文学理論を応用して第一着を天元に打ち下ろした。しかし道策は冷静に対応し、安井の研究不足もあって9目の負けとなった。その後南里与兵衛がやはり道策に初手天元で立ち向かったが、中押し負けを喫している。

その後は長く初手天元は現れず、明治時代に入って黒田俊節本因坊秀甫に打った記録がある程度である。天元が脚光を浴びるのは、昭和時代になってからになる。木谷實・呉清源の提唱した新布石の中で中央を重視する手法として打ち出され、久保松勝喜代は特に熱心にこれを研究した。久保松は、「中央に大きな地を築くよりも、戦いに活用すべき着点」との見解を示している。

さらに呉清源が、本因坊秀哉名人との対戦で三々・星・天元を連打する布石を打ち、大センセーションを巻き起こすこととなった。

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(白:本因坊秀哉 黒:呉清源)

 新布石旋風が止むと再び初手天元は用いられなくなり、マネ碁対策などとして散発的に打たれる程度となった。有名な碁としては、1950年に東西対抗戦で山部俊郎橋本宇太郎に対して初手天元を放ったものがある。橋本はノータイムで天元にケイマガカリ、山部も間髪入れずにケイマに受け、大いに囲碁ファンを沸かせた。当時は東西の対抗意識が最盛期に達していた時期で、挑発的な感情が背景にあったといわれる。

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(黒:山部俊郎 白:橋本宇太郎)

平成時代に入っては、山下敬吾天元戦で集中的に初手天元を試して話題となった。また依田紀基なども時に天元打ちを試し、白番2手目での天元なども打っている。下に示すのは2000年の新鋭トーナメント戦決勝にて、山下敬吾が高尾紳路相手に白番天元を放った一局。

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評価[編集]

布石における天元は、研究不足のためもあって利用法が難しく、プロ間でも勝率は高くない。天元の効果は全局に薄く広く及ぶため、その効率的な活用が難しいためと考えられる。たとえば加藤正夫は、「天元に打ってもらうとコミにして2目半ほど得した気分」と述べている。かつて天元を多用した山下敬吾も「若い頃に、トップ棋士対策として使用した一種の奇襲戦法であり、今後打つことはないだろう」とコメントするなど、プロレベルでは今のところ有効な着点とは見なされていない。ただし究められていない部分はまだ多く、序盤研究の最終地点となるのではないかとの見方もある[誰によって?]

その他[編集]

  • 『天元坊』 山松ゆうきち……初手天元を打つ僧侶が主人公の漫画作品。

参考文献[編集]

「天元への挑戦」 山下敬吾・相場一宏著 河出書房新社