^For a thesis on the complementary nature of Islam to the absolutist trend of Christian monarchy, see Garth Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth: Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity, Princeton University Press, 1993.
^A. Giardana, “Esplosione di tardoantico,” Studi storici, 40 (1999).
^Glen W. Bowersock, “The Vanishing Paradigm of the Fall of Rome,” Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 49. 8 (May 1996) p.34.
^A recent thesis advanced by Peter Heather of Oxford posits the Goths, Hunnic Empire, and the Crossing of the Rhine invaders of 406 (Alans, Suevi, Vandals) as the direct causes of the Western Empire's crippling; The Fall of the Roman Empire: a New History of Rome and the Barbarians, OUP 2005.
^Eusebius of Caesarea, Vita Constantini, 3.5-6, 4.47.