ロマンティック・モダニズム

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
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ロマンティック・モダニズム
(ロモ)
様式的起源 ニューロマンティックグラムロックディスコHi-NRGコンテンポラリー・R&Bモータウンシンセポップ
文化的起源 1990年代半ばのイギリス
使用楽器 ドラムス – ギター – ベースドラムマシンMIDIキーボードシンセサイザー
関連項目
ブリットポップ - インディーズ

ロマンティック・モダニズム (Romantic Modernism)、より一般的にはロモ (Romo) は、おおよそ1995年から1997年にかけての時期にイギリスで起こった、グラム/スタイル・ポップ系の音楽やナイトクラブ文化に関わる動きで、カムデンのクラブ・ナイト「Club Skinny」[1]と、ウエスト・エンドにおける同様のイベントであった「Arcadia」[2]のふたつを中心に、その他の場所でも関係するおもだったバンドのコンサートがおこなわれた。

ロモの動きは、基本的に1970年代後半のディスコ1980年代前半のクラブ・ミュージックから派生したもので、特にジャパンソフト・セルのようなニューロマンティック時代のバンドの特徴だった派手な衣装のスタイルや退廃感が強調されていた。しかし、サイモン・プライス英語版テイラー・パークス英語版がこのジャンルについて執筆していた当時の『メロディ・メーカー (Melody Maker)』の特集記事などでは、ニューロマンティックとの懐古的な繋がりは強調されず、ロモの新しさ、同時代性が強調されていた。

プライスやパークスら『メロディ・メーカー』の記者たちが、服装の面で地味なスタイルだったブリットポップの動きに対するスタイリッシュでポップ色の強い反発だとする一方で、賛否両論さまざまなメディアの中では、シーンの当事者たちは嫌ったニューロマンティック・リバイバルという捉え方もされたロモは、その後もクラブ・カルチャーの中で新たなグラム/スタイル指向のクラブ・ナイトを生み出し2000年代に至った。

歴史[編集]

ロモの誕生[編集]

クラブ・スキニーは、1995年春に、プロモーターのケヴィン・ワイルド (Kevin Wilde) とポール・"ハイファイ"・ニュージェント (Paul "HiFi" Nugent) によって、インディーズ系のブリットポップに対抗する形で、スタイリッシュな1980年代ポップをかけるクラブ・イベントとして始められた。当初の開催場所だったカムデンズ・ローレル・ツリー (Camden's Laurel Tree) は、ブリットポップのクラブナイトだった Blow Up の根拠地でもあった。ワイルドとニュージェントは、彼らのグラマラスなポップ・ナイトを、敵視していたインディーズ/ブリットポップ系の動きの中心地である場所で開催することが、破壊的で「パンク」な行動だと考えていた。当初は、客を呼び込むため、妥協的にブリットポップ系の新進バンドに演奏させるといったことも盛り込まれていたが、デヴィッド・ボウイの影響を受け、派手な衣装センスで知られた女性バンド、パーセキューション・コンプレックス (Persecution Complex) のメンバーがクラブの常連になると、このクラブは勢いを増し、さらに派手なクラブの客たちを呼び込むようになった[3]

やがて、さらなる展開として、プラスティック・ファンタスティック (Plastic Fantastic) とデクスデクスター (DexDexTer) というふたつのグラマラスな1980年代スタイルのバンドが出演者に加わったが、前者はブライトンを拠点とした、ロキシー・ミュージックジャパンの影響を受けたバンドで、フロントマンは元スコルピオ・ライジング (Scorpio Rising)/スーパーチャージャー (Supercharger) のスチュアート・ミラー (Stuart Miller) であり、後者は、旧称を MkII といい、後にプラシーボのキーボード奏者を務めたポール・"ゼイヴィア"・ロイド (Paul "Xavior" Roide) がリーダーだった。これら二つのバンドは、8月17日のクラブ・スキニーで、ダブルヘッドラインを務めた[3]。さらに、このクラブで演奏した、当時ブリットポップ系を目指していたバンドのひとつで、デレク・'デル'・グレイ (Derek 'Del' Gray) がリーダーだったヴィヴァ (Viva) は、このクラブに影響されて方向を転換し、アルバム『ルック・オブ・ラヴ (The Lexicon of Love)』の頃のABCのような純粋にポップ/ディスコ系のバンドに変身した[4]。後にワイルドは、ヴィヴァやデクスデクスターのマネージャーを務めた[5]

『メロディ・メーカー』誌のサイモン・プライスによる発見[編集]

メロディ・メーカー』誌の記者サイモン・プライスは、既にプラスティック・ファンタスティック (Plastic Fantastic) の登場に注目するよう呼びかけており、このバンドや、マンチェスターを拠点とし、元々はインディーズのギター・デュオとしてサニティ・プレクサス (Sanity Plexus) と名乗っていた、歌手デイヴィッド・サヴェージ ( David Savage) とキーボード奏者ポール・サザン (Paul Southern) による「インテリジェント・ハンドバッグ (intelligent handbag)」デュオのセクサス (Sexus)、さらに、グラマラスではないエレクトロニックなバンドだったブティック (Boutique) を、1995年6月に掲載されたセクサスのデビュー・シングル「Edenites」のレビューにおいて、「ニュー・ロモ (New Romo)」と呼んだ[6]。プライスの同僚記者であったエヴァレット・トゥルー英語版も、同年夏に書かれたプラスティック・ファンタスティックのレビューの中で、ロモという言葉を多用した[7]。プライスは、あらゆる意味で成功であった上述のクラブ・スキニーにおけるダブルヘッドラインのイベントに招待されていたが、以降、記者としてこのシーンを精力的にカバーし始め、同僚記者のテイラー・パークス英語版をこの分野に転向させただけでなく、ソーホーのシーンにおいて二つ目のナイトクラブ・イベントとしてアーケイディア (Arcadia) を自ら立ち上げた。このイベントは、当初はデューク・ストリート (Duke Street) のレキップ・アングレ (L'Equippe Anglais) で開催されたが、後には伝説的なソーホーのドラァグ・バー、マダム・ジョジョズ (Madame Jojo's) に場所を移した[2]

一方、クラブ・スキニーも、1995年8月31日から、ディングウォールズ英語版に近い、カムデン・ロック・マーケット (Camden Lock Market) のHQズ (HQ's) に場所を移した[3]。同年9月28日にそこで開催された、プラスティック・ファンタスティック/ヴィヴァ/デクスデクスターのトリプル・ビル共演は、パークスによって、記憶に残る書きぶりでレビューされた。

ここには少なくとも350人くらいが入っている。サテン、ヘビ皮、PVC肩章ペルオキシド、瞳に宿るある種の真剣さ、唇に漂うある種の決意。[8]

ここで言及されているペルオキシドは、当時、漂白剤として、おもに髪の脱色に使われていた。

当時は、さらに多くのバンドがこのシーンから登場しようとしていた。1993年から1994年にかけて、インディーズのバンドとしてライブ演奏をしていたオーランド英語版は、趣向を変え、歌手ティム・チッピング (Tim Chipping) とギタリスト/作詞家ディコン・エドワーズからなる「疎外された (alienated)」ホワイト・ソウル・デュオとサイドマンたちとして再登場してクラブ・スキニーのアプローチし、ライブ活動を再開した[3]。同様に、パンク・トリオだったゼロックス・ガールズ (Xerox Girls) も、歌手ハンナ・エグレン (Hannah Edgren) とキーボード奏者トレーシー・リー (Stacey Leigh) の冷淡なシンセ/エレクトロ・デュオ、ハリウッド (Hollywood) に衣替えし[9]、3人目のメンバーで、当時リーのボーイフレンドだったデイヴィッド・グレイ (David Gray) は、シンセサイザー・プログラマーとなった。グレイはその後、オーランドのライブでドラマーを務め、やがてニュージェントが両方のバンドのマネジメントに当たるようになった[5]

主流メディアの注目[編集]

The scene began to achieve mainstream media coverage with a feature on Arcadia in Katie Puckrick's Sunday Show featuring live footage of Plastic Fantastic and Sexus (by now a full part of the Romo scene) and interviews with the two aforementioned bands, Xavior from DexDexTer and Simon Price, and queue/crowd/dancefloor footage of Arcadia featuring Wilde, Grey, Chipping, Edwards, Edgren and Leigh.[10] By the end of 1995, media coverage of Romo had included TV coverage on ITV, Sky News and an unspecified Japanese TV news programme, radio coverage on BBC Radio 1 and BBC World Service and print media coverage in Time Out, The Observer, The Guardian, The Sunday Times,[11] as well as colour features in style magazines The Face[12] and i-D.[13][14] Tabloid newspaper the Daily Star also printed an enthusiastic but largely inaccurate full page article depicting the scene as a straightforward New Romantic revival.[15]

Melody Maker meanwhile continued its enthusiastic coverage, culminating in a cover-featured Romo special defining the scene. The cover image was a group shot of Chipping, Miller, Savage and Xavior clad in their Romo finery, while the feature identified seven core bands – the aforementioned Orlando,[16] Plastic Fantastic,[17] DexDexTer,[18] Sexus,[19] Hollywood,[20] Viva,[21] and linking in one non-scene band Minty, the former musical project of the late Leigh Bowery being continued after his death by his widow Nicola and various artistic friends, most notably singer Mathew Glammore.[22] More significant was the inclusion of a "Romanifesto" by Price and Parkes which ideologically defined Romo as the rejection of authenticity in music in favour of creative artifice, a militant pop sensibility (which placed Romo in direct opposition to both rockism and the values of alternative music) and the ideal of recreating/reinventing oneself as a glamorous Star-type persona.[23]

Melody Makerカセットおよびパッケージツアー[編集]

The 9 March 1996 edition of Melody Maker gave away a compilation cassette of Romo bands entitled Fiddling While Romo Burns. Five bands featured on the tape – DexDexTer, Hollywood, Plastic Fantastic, Viva (whose track Now was co-produced by Marc Almond and Neal X) and Orlando[24] – Sexus and Minty having by now decided to keep their distance from the scene.[25][26] Despite Minty's non-involvement in the tape, individual members and collaborators contributed to the continuing flow of fresh Romo acts such as Elizabeth Bunny and Massive Ego,[27] the latter featuring a young Dan Black on guitar. Other newcomers to the scene were Universe (a similar "perfect pop" concept to Viva)[28] and Acacia (an earlier incarnation of which featured future Mercury Music prize winner Talvin Singh.)[29] German pop act Sin With Sebastian also played Arcadia during this time.[30] Romo club culture also continued to develop with the launch by Price and Gray of Saturday night clubnight Paris 6 am at Oscars nightclub in Leicester Square[31] as well as two clubs organised by other parties – The Cell at Gossips in Dean Street promoted by Stewart Ubik[32] and the Roxy Motel Club at The Fridge in Brixton.

The climax of all this activity was a package tour of Romo bands, also entitled "Fiddling While Romo Burns", featuring a quadruple bill of Orlando, Plastic Fantastic, Hollywood and DexDexTer[33] (with live drummer Laura "Elle" Schellino).[34] Although the showcase London concert (also featuring Viva) at the LA2 venue was a 750 capacity sellout and reasonable crowds were also attracted to the Brighton[33] and Manchester shows, other provincial dates on the tour – mostly at student venues that were the fodder of the very indie music that the militantly pop Romo movement opposed – failed to attract large audiences and those that did attend were generally sceptical.[35] More seriously, the strain of having to live, eat and sleep together rather than merely go nightclubbing together had severely strained relations between the bands.[36] Chipping was relatively diplomatic about this in one interview at the time: "There's a definite reason why we have two tourbuses. It's to do with the fact that some bands just won't tour with each other, not because they dislike each other, they just have different... living styles."[37] Nevertheless, by the end of the tour, all of the seven core acts originally featured in the Melody Maker special had recording contracts with either major or big independent labels – Orlando with WEA subsidiary Blanco y Negro Records, Plastic Fantastic with Mercury Records, Sexus with ZTT, Hollywood with U2's Mother Records label, DexDexTer with Island Records subdivision Trade2, Viva with Planet3 Records[38] and Minty (whose transvestite drummer Trevor Sharpe had filled in as drummer for Plastic Fantastic on the tour)[33] with Candy Records.

ロマンティック・モダニズムの「死」[編集]

After the tour, Price wrote an editorial in Melody Maker declaring the movement dead as it had achieved its aims but was now being soured by the revivalist portrayal in the mainstream media.[39] Despite this, the scene in London continued with more bands emerging such as Anglo-Japanese female quartet Étoile[40] as well as the arrival in Britain of Donovan Leitch's band Nancy Boy.[41] Another late major addition to the scene at around this time was Belvedere Kane, fronted by Romo scene face Barry Stone, later of the Jewels And Stone writing/production partnership. In his review of the latter's gig, Price recanted his "Romo is dead" declaration, dismissing it as a red herring tactic and further adding that the continued spread of Romo was by now beyond even his control.[42] At around this time, a first anniversary party was held for Club Skinny headlined by Crush, the band of former Byker Grove TV stars Donna Air and Jayni Hoi. However, continued tensions in the scene led to the discontinuation of both Skinny and Arcadia in July 1996. Romo activities continued at the individual bands' concerts (although one Plastic Fantastic concert at Dingwalls from this time ended in a mass brawl after a hat was thrown onstage.[43] Plastic Fantastic also had a residency at the Dublin Castle, Camden during this period, although this was terminated by management after an incident where stage invaders performed a sex show.[44]

The bands mostly concentrated on their recording contracts at this point – in late 1996 Hollywood released a heavily remixed single Apocalypse Kiss while Plastic Fantastic – having previously released the Eno-influenced Fantastique no.5- recorded a planned album Autumn which was never released due to a dispute with Mercury over the mix of planned second single Plastic World.[45] Sexus, who had also released a second single The Official End Of It All and recorded an album The Boyfriend Olympics, similarly fell out with ZTT over the mix of planned third single How Do You Kiss.[46][47] Personal differences between Xavior and his bandmates led to the demise of DexDexTer in early 1997 just as their single Another Car Another CarCrash was released.[48] Both parties remained signed tor Trade2; the bandmates as ExDexTer recorded demos for the label but were swiftly dropped as eventually was Xavior in 1998 after he had recorded an unreleased solo album, Chainsaw Mass Appeal[49] and appeared in the film Velvet Goldmine.[50][51] After several years producing, playing keyboards for Placebo and recording further unreleased solo albums, he would reemerge as a frontman in the late 2000s fronting Paul St Paul and the Apostles with David Ryder Prangley. Viva meanwhile, despite continuing to demo material, never released any records and would later rename themselves Scala 5 and revert to a heavier guitar sound before their demise circa 2000.[52] Stuart Miller dissolved Plastic Fantastic and revived his old band Supercharger,[50] while Hollywood's Hannah Edgren was spotted (by Dickon Edwards) fronting a new band in 1998[53] – she and Stacey Leigh would later reunite as Fubar. Sexus were frozen into inactivity due to a dispute with management after the fallout with ZTT – they would eventually re-emerge in 2002 as the Psychodelicates with a download/mail order album Psychodelicates Go Adventuring.[47]

Thus by the middle of 1997 it was left to Orlando and Minty to be the most prolific – and in that sense the most successful – Romo bands as they were the only two of the seven core acts to reach the stage of releasing their respective albums. Orlando, having already released two singles "Just for a Second" and The Magic EP in late 1996 (the latter of which achieved #96 on the UK Singles Chart[54]) and a third, Nature's Hated in spring 1997, having toured extensively with Kenickie and having scored the only UK Top 75 chart hit of any core Romo act with their contribution to the Fever Pitch soundtrack EP, a cover of Tim Hardin's How Can We Hang On to a Dream, released their album Passive Soul in October that year before Dickon Edwards departed to found Fosca. Tim Chipping would continue to use the Orlando band name for a planned folk-orientated second album under the working title Sick Folk (to have included a collaboration with Kenickie/Rosita members Marie Du Santiago and Emmy-Kate Montrose), before finally dissolving Orlando in Spring 2000.[55] Minty, likewise, having released singles "Useless Man", "Plastic Bag" (a No. 2 hit in the Netherlands), "That's Nice" and "Nothing", released their parent album Open Wide in late 1997 before also disbanding, with some members later forming rock band The Servant. With all the core bands and major London clubnights now defunct (or at least no longer in their Romo incarnations), the Romo scene effectively came to an end.

レガシー[編集]

In Romo's wake over the next several years came a fresh wave of glam/style orientated clubnights. One of the first of these was Club Kitten, the successor to Club Skinny, based at the latter's old location of HQ's in Camden and featuring Stuart Miller as DJ.[56] Another important post-Romo club was Stay Beautiful, run by Simon Price at various London locations from 2000–2009 and in Brighton 2011-2016. Several other Romo musicians ran glam/style orientated club nights – notably Minty vocalist Mathew Glammore's "Kashpoint"[57] (at a January 2004 installment of which Glammore performed a medley of old Minty songs[58] and a March 2005 installment of which featured a Minty reunion),[59] Xavior's "Hanky Panky Kabaret" clubnight[60][61] (and associated meetings in London's Wolsey restaurant)[60] and Dickon Edwards' "Beautiful And Damned"[62] and "Against Nature".[63] Wilde and Nugent would later unleash another scene – the Club Rampage/Club P*rnstar "Bratpop" scene in late 1998 (also the beneficiary of a Melody Maker cover special).[64]

Other promoters also hosted such glam/style-orientated clubnights in the 2000s – most notably Glam-Ou-Rama, which later relocated to Tel Aviv.[65] Romo Night in Sweden, first established in 1996 during the original London scene's lifetime, was still active as of 2003.[66][67]

Romo was also frequently cited as a precedent for (if not actually an influence on) the electroclash scene of the early 2000s.[68][69][70][71] The Disciples by James Mollison, a book of photographs of music fans, includes a spread of photos of fans at a London concert by major electroclash act Fischerspooner, mostly dressed in Romo-style attire (one of whom is Simon Price).[72]

Writing and production team Xenomania, who became critically and commercially successful in the 2000s for their work with groups such as Girls Aloud and Sugababes, started out as remixers for songs by several Romo bands, including Hollywood's "Apocalypse Kiss" and Sexus' "How Do You Kiss?". According to Tom Ewing of Freaky Trigger, writing in 2003, Xenomania's Romo roots could be heard in their then-current work.[73] Writing in 2004 in regards to Xenomania's commercial success, Ewing said: "You can find Romo links everywhere if you look!"[74] Ewing also compared Hollywood (whose repertoire had included "Lost in Moscow 3am")[75] to Russian duo t.A.T.u., who he said were "entirely Romo, though it would be more accurate to say that Romo was a spirited runt in a litter that also birthed them."[74]

音楽的特徴[編集]

One wing of Romo bands, such as Plastic Fantastic and DexDexTer cleaved towards art-glam. Although actually mostly referencing Brian Eno's Here Come the Warm Jets (particularly the tracks "Baby's On Fire" and "Needles in the Camel's Eye"), Fantastique no.5 was reviewed in the NME by Pulp members Russell Senior and Candida Doyle as "Ro-mu - as in Roxy Music. The influences are that transparent!"[76]

Other bands such as Viva, Belvedere Kane, Sexus and to a lesser extent Orlando, took inspiration from the nightclub-orientated Hi-NRG/Handbag house chart pop of the mid 1990s. Viva bassist Lee David described how his band's sound "came from going to clubs and seeing what got people dancing."[77] Sexus's sound was characterised by Price as "intelligent handbag."[78] Musically, Orlando combined the synthesised dance-pop of 1990s boybands and American swingbeat acts with verbose lyrics in the general style of Morrissey and Richey Edwards.[79]

The dance-pop influences seeped through to the scene's art-glam wing also - interviewing Plastic Fantastic, Melody Maker's David Bennun suggested that the band's preferred mix of Plastic World (by dance producer Howard Hughes) "sounds like Hawkwind gone disco."[80] Hollywood's single "Apocalypse Kiss" (transformed from the original dark electropop 1995 demo to a piano house sound by remixers Apollo 440) was described by Tom Ewing of Freaky Trigger as "gothy handbag with big production and those flattened Europop vowels."[81]

Despite the Romo scene being a backlash against the values of Britpop and indie, Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic nonetheless characterised it as "a fey, arty offspring of Britpop," noting that the genre took influence from "a touch of irony, modernist art, a healthy love of the Style Council and the Spice Girls, inspiration from Pulp, jealousy of Menswear, a vague idea of Roxy Music, heritage in the Smiths and the Manics, and a minor obsession with Dead Poets Society." Erlewine furthermore summarised that "Romo essentially boiled down to a cross between Adam Ant, Roxy Music, Pulp, and Blur, with a hint of an idea of what Bowie may have meant."[82]

批判[編集]

Being as it was an attack on the very notion of authenticity in music, Romo's inauthenticity was itself declared pernicious by its opponents. While Erlewine praised Fiddling While Romo Burns he nonetheless complained "...There's nothing but style and artifice here, and at crushing levels ... it's filled with affectation and pretension.".[83] Others were more blunt about this, such as Super Furry Animals frontman Gruff Rhys. "I hate Romo" he declared, "it's so plastic!"[84]

コアバンドのディスコグラフィー[編集]

ジャンル編集[編集]

  • 1996年3月9日、メロディメーカーに含まれるRomo Burnsコンピレーションカセット
  1. DexDexTer - Creature Feature
  2. Hollywood - Lights Camera Revolution
  3. Plastic Fantastic - Complimentary Electron
  4. Viva - Now
  5. Orlando - Nature's Hated (first version)

オーランド[編集]

オーランドのディスコグラフィーを見る

ミント[編集]

See Mintyディスコグラフィー

Sexus[編集]

シングル: [85]

  • エデナイト(Svelte Records、SVC 1、1995)
  1. Edenites
  2. Cheap Thrills and Expensive Regrets
  3. Rope Heaven By The Neck
  • オフィシャルエンドオブイット(ZTT ZANG77CD、1996)UKシングルチャート#90
  1. The Official End Of It All
  2. Longing Without Belonging
  3. King Of The Fairground Swing
  • どのようにキスしますか?(ZTT、ZANG 86 CD 1996、撤回-プロモーションコピーの配布)
    1. How Do You Kiss?
    2. Joe January
    3. Beaten Up By Girls

The two ZTT singles also each included a remix of the respective lead tracks. Both were reissued in full on iTunes as most of ZTT - The Singles Collection - Volume 3[86]

ハリウッド[編集]

シングル:

  • Apocalype Kiss(Mother Records、MUMCD 79、1996)
  1. Apocalype Kiss(およびリミックス)

Plastic Fantastic[編集]

シングル:

  • Fantastique no.5(Mercury – PFCD 001 1996)UKシングルチャート#94
  1. ファンタスティックNo.5
  2. 題名
リードトラックのリミックスも含まれています

DexDexTer[編集]

シングル: [87]

  • Another Car Another CarCrash(トレード2 – TRD SC CD 002 1996)
  1. Another Car Another CarCrash
  2. Headlines/Headlights
  3. Car Trex

プロモカセットシングル(1995):[88]

  • Chemistry of Youth / V.D.
  • April 31st / Winter Again

In addition to the above, in the early 2000s unreleased Sexus tracks were uploaded to the Pyschodelicates website[89] and unreleased Viva and Plastic Fantastic tracks were uploaded by Nugent to the This Is Romo website.[90] Considerable further material by Plastic Fantastic was uploaded to SoundCloud[91] and YouTube 2016-2019 by guitarist/keyboardist Shadric Toop. Demo tapes of Hollywood, the above listed DexDexTer cassette tracks and Xavior's Chainsaw Mass Appeal album also circulated as bootlegs among the Club Skinny/Arcadia attendees community.

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ Club Skinny index on This Is Romo” (2007年3月20日). 2007年3月20日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  2. ^ a b Arcadia index on This Is Romo” (2007年3月14日). 2007年3月14日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  3. ^ a b c d Club Skinny story on This Is Romo” (2007年3月16日). 2007年3月16日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  4. ^ Viva Story on This Is Romo (Archived version)”. Web.archive.org (2007年3月17日). 2007年3月17日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  5. ^ a b Romo Who's Who on This Is Romo (Archived version)”. Web.archive.org (2007年3月14日). 2007年3月14日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  6. ^ Singles review: Sexus – Edenites, Single Of The Week No. 1, Simon Price, Melody Maker 24 June 1995 p32
  7. ^ Romo Copped – Plastic Fantastic Live Review at the Richmond, Brighton, Melody Maker 5 August 1995 p17
  8. ^ The Plastic Age – live review of Plastic Fantastic/Viva/DexDexTer by Taylor Parkes, Melody Maker. 7 October 1995 p16
  9. ^ Hollywood feature by Taylor Parkes, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 11
  10. ^ Romo/Arcadia feature on the Sunday Show hosted by Katie Puckrick, BBC2 late 1995, viewable on Youtube
  11. ^ The Romo Empire, 1995 The Year In Review, Melody Maker 23/30 December 1995 p56
  12. ^ Pose Who Dare – Clubs Section, The Face December 1995 p180
  13. ^ Plastic Passion – i-D December 1995 "The Performance Issue"
  14. ^ Ridicule is nothing to be scared of – i-D December 1995 "The Performance Issue"
  15. ^ They're the new romantics and they're DRESSED TO KILT! by Lee Harpin, Daily Star Thursday 26 October 1995 p28
  16. ^ Orlando feature by Taylor Parkes, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 10
  17. ^ Plastic Fantastic feature by Everett True, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 12
  18. ^ DexDexTer feature by Taylor Parkes, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 10
  19. ^ Sexus feature by Simon Price, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 13
  20. ^ Hollywood feature by Taylor Parkes, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 11
  21. ^ Viva feature by Taylor Parkes, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 11
  22. ^ Minty feature by Everett True, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 11
  23. ^ Romanifesto by Simon Price & Taylor Parkes, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 10
  24. ^ Romo On the Tracks (Romo cassette tracks information), Melody Maker 9 March 1996 p7
  25. ^ letter signed Minni Matrix, Backlash (letters page) edited by Taylor Parkes, Melody Maker 23 March 1996, p43
  26. ^ "The Good Sexus Guide" Sexus feature by Taylor Parkes, 24 February 1996 p42-43
  27. ^ The Big I Am – Massive Ego live review from Club Skinny by Simon Price, Melody Maker 30 March 1996
  28. ^ Universe live review at Arcadia by Simon Price, Melody Maker 2 March 1996 p25
  29. ^ Acacia live review by David Hemingway, Melody Maker 28 June 1997 p 37
  30. ^ Sin With Sebastian/Viva live review by Simon Price Melody Maker 9 March 1996 p 26
  31. ^ Romo coverage in News section, Melody Maker 9 December 1995 p2
  32. ^ "Where The People Look Good, Where The Music Is Loud" Romo club guide, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 14
  33. ^ a b c Let's Get Ready To Romo – live review of Melody Maker "Fiddling While Romo Burns" Romo Tour at the Zap club, Brighton by Everett True, Melody Maker 30 March 1996 p24
  34. ^ https://fandalism.com/lauras#!tab=Interview
  35. ^ Pop Goes The Revival – live review of Melody Maker "Fiddling While Romo Burns" Romo Tour at the University Of East Anglia, Norwich by Andrew Smith, Sunday Times 10 March 1996 p24
  36. ^ Interviews with Dickon Edwards & Simon Price, Romo tour coverage, Newsbeat BBC Radio 1, March 1996, as was featured on original of Passive Soul era page on archive of Tim Chipping's 'Ear Medicine' Orlando retrospective site
  37. ^ Romo tour feature on The Baggage”. Thebaggage.com. 2011年7月16日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  38. ^ Viva Story on This Is Romo (Archived version)” (2007年3月17日). 2007年3月17日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  39. ^ Viewpoint by Simon Price, Melody Maker 20 April 1996 p41
  40. ^ Étoile introductory article by Kristy Barker, Melody Maker 24 June 1996
  41. ^ Nancy Boy live review at Club Skinny by Simon Price, Melody Maker 13 April 1996 p20
  42. ^ Belverdere Kane at Club Skinny live review by Simon Price, Melody Maker 3 August 1996
  43. ^ Melody Maker 9 July 1996 p9
  44. ^ http://www.wow247.co.uk/2016/01/28/dublin-castle-london-camden/
  45. ^ Stuart Miller interview on This Is Romo (Archived version)” (2007年3月16日). 2007年3月16日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  46. ^ Alex McCann. “Psychodelicates interview for Designer Magazine”. Designermagazine.tripod.com. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  47. ^ a b Sexus page on Psychodelicates website”. Psychodelicates.com. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  48. ^ "The Beginning and The End?" -news report on DexDexTer single & split, Melody Maker 11 January 1997 p3
  49. ^ Xavior career history, 2004
  50. ^ a b Romo Who's Who on This Is Romo (Archived version)” (2007年3月14日). 2007年3月14日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  51. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120879/fullcredits
  52. ^ Viva Story on This Is Romo (Archived version)” (2007年3月17日). 2007年3月17日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  53. ^ Dickon Edwards's diary – sighting of Hannah Edgren fronting new band in 1998”. Dickonedwards.com. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  54. ^ Magic EP by Orlando on Official UK Singles Chart
  55. ^ Sick Folk era page on archive of Tim Chipping's 'Ear Medicine' Orlando retrospective site” (2003年4月6日). 2003年4月6日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  56. ^ Club Kitten index on This Is Romo (Archived version)” (2007年3月14日). 2007年3月14日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  57. ^ Kashpoint website”. Kashpoint.com. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  58. ^ Dickon Edwards's diary – Matthew Glammore performs old Minty songs at Kashpoint 2004”. Dickonedwards.com (2004年1月9日). 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  59. ^ Flyer for Minty Reunion concert at Kashpoint on Kashpoint website[リンク切れ]
  60. ^ a b Dickon Edwards's diary – Xavior's Hanky Panky Kabaret 2005 entry”. Dickonedwards.com. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  61. ^ Dickon Edwards's diary – Xavior's Hanky Panky Kabaret 2004 entry”. Dickonedwards.com. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  62. ^ Dickon Edwards's diary – Beautiful and Damned”. Dickonedwards.com (2006年5月18日). 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  63. ^ Dickon Edwards's diary – Against Nature”. Dickonedwards.com (2010年4月27日). 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  64. ^ Teenage Rampage (Bratpop special cover feature) Melody Maker 15 August 1998 pages 20–22
  65. ^ Glam-ou-rama website”. Glam-ou-rama.co.uk. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  66. ^ Archive of Information page in English on Romo Night in Sweden website” (2003年3月23日). 2003年4月5日時点の[hem.bredband.net/b144242/uk_info.htm オリジナル]よりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  67. ^ Archive of News page in English on Romo Night in Sweden website” (2003年10月25日). 2003年10月25日時点の[hem.bredband.net/b144242/uk_new.htm オリジナル]よりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  68. ^ Dorian Lynskey (2002年6月12日). “article citing Romo as precendent for Electroclash”. The Guardian (UK). https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2002/mar/22/shopping.artsfeatures2 2011年11月28日閲覧。 
  69. ^ "... just like RoMo before it – a proto-Electroclash if there ever was one ..." reader's comment on Guardian article on Electroclash
  70. ^ New Romantic article indicating subsequent lineage of Romo and Electroclash”. Golden-pop.com. 2012年3月15日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2011年11月28日閲覧。
  71. ^ 4 hrs ago (2011年4月20日). “Review of La Roux album referencing Romo and Electroclash as stages in the same lineage”. Uk.launch.yahoo.com. 2011年11月28日閲覧。
  72. ^ The Disciples by James Mollison (with foreword by Desmond Morris), Chris Boot 2008 – Fischerspooner fans image section
  73. ^ Ewing (2003年10月27日). “Pop's Romo Roots!”. Freaky Trigger. 2018年1月4日閲覧。
  74. ^ a b Ewing (2004年1月29日). “Last night for the first time in my life”. Freaky Trigger. 2018年1月4日閲覧。
  75. ^ Hollywood - The Songs ThisIsRomo.com accessed 17 January 2018
  76. ^ Singles reviews Rusell Senior and Candida Doyle, NME April 1996
  77. ^ Romo On the Tracks (Romo cassette tracks information), Melody Maker 9 March 1996 p7
  78. ^ Sexus feature by Simon Price, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 13
  79. ^ Orlando feature by Taylor Parkes, Romo special feature, Melody Maker 25 November 1995 page 10
  80. ^ Plastic Explosive - Plastic Fantastic interview by David Bennun - Melody Maker 9 March 1996 p40-41
  81. ^ Ewing (2004年1月29日). “Last night for the first time in my life”. Freaky Trigger. 2018年1月4日閲覧。
  82. ^ Erlewine. “Fiddling While Romo Burns”. AllMusic. 2018年1月4日閲覧。
  83. ^ Erlewine. “Fiddling While Romo Burns”. AllMusic. 2018年1月4日閲覧。
  84. ^ Super Furry Animals interview, Melody Maker 9 March 1996
  85. ^ https://www.discogs.com/artist/88668-Sexus
  86. ^ https://itunes.apple.com/gb/album/ztt-singles-vol.-3/id285088354
  87. ^ https://www.discogs.com/artist/1459057-Dex-Dex-Ter
  88. ^ https://www.discogs.com/artist/1459057-Dex-Dex-Ter
  89. ^ (Archive of) Psychodelicates website - Free songs
  90. ^ (Archive of) This Is Romo - Romo MP3s!
  91. ^ Plastic Fantastic 96 on Soundcloud

外部リンク[編集]