ポルトガル人による日本人などのアジア人の奴隷貿易

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ポルトガル人による日本人などのアジア人の奴隷貿易(ポルトガルじんによるにほんじんなどのアジアじんのどれいぼうえき)では、主に16世紀以降のポルトガル人による日本人などのアジア人の奴隷貿易について述べる。ポルトガルにおいては古くから奴隷制が存在し、古代ローマウマイヤ朝など時代を通じてそのあり方が変化してきた。15世紀以降の大航海時代になると、黒人奴隷とする大西洋奴隷貿易が盛んになるが、ポルトガル人アジアへの進出に伴い、アジア人を奴隷とする奴隷貿易も行われるようになっていった。

概要[編集]

アジア人の奴隷[編集]

ポルトガル人が日本人に1543年に初めて接触したのち、16〜17世紀を通じ、ポルトガル人が日本で日本人を奴隷として買い付け、ポルトガル本国を含む海外の様々な場所で売りつけるという大規模な奴隷交易が発展した[1][2]。多くの文献において、日本人を奴隷にすることへの抗議とともに、大規模な奴隷交易の存在が述べられている[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]。日本人の奴隷たちはヨーロッパに流れ着いた最初の日本人であると考えられており、1555年の教会の記録によれば、ポルトガル人は多数の日本人の奴隷の少女を買い取り性的な目的でポルトガルに連れ帰っていた。国王セバスティアン1世は日本人の奴隷交易が大規模なものへと成長してきたため、カトリック教会への改宗に悪影響が出ることを懸念して1571年に日本人の奴隷交易の中止を命令した[13][14]

日本人の女性奴隷は、日本で交易を行うポルトガル船で働くヨーロッパ人水夫だけでなく、黒人水夫に対しても、として売られていた、とポルトガル人イエズス会士ルイス・セルケイラ(Luís Cerqueira)が1598年に書かれた文書で述べている[15]。日本人の奴隷はポルトガル人によってマカオに連れて行かれ、そこでポルトガル人の奴隷となるだけでなく、一部の者はポルトガル人が所有していたマレー人アフリカ人の奴隷とさせられた[16][17]

豊臣秀吉は自国の民が九州において大規模に奴隷として売買されていることを大変不快に感じ、1587年7月24日にイエズス会の副管区長のガスパール・コエリョに手紙を書き、ポルトガル人、タイ人カンボジア人に日本人を買い付けて奴隷にすることを中止するよう命じた。また、インドにまで流れ着いた日本人を連れ戻すよう言い渡した[18][19][20]。秀吉はポルトガル人とイエズス会をこの奴隷交易について非難し、結果としてキリスト教への強制改宗が禁止された[21][22]

文禄・慶長の役捕虜として日本に囚われていた数万人のうち一部の朝鮮人もまた奴隷としてポルトガル人に買い付けられてポルトガルに連れて行かれた[23][24]。 歴史家は、秀吉はポルトガル人による日本人奴隷売買に立腹し激怒したが、同時に秀吉自身も日本における朝鮮人捕虜の大規模な交易に関わっていたことを指摘している[25][26]

ポルトガルの首都リスボンには少なくとも1540年には中国人の奴隷がいた複数の記録がある[27]。現代の歴史家によると、中国人が初めてヨーロッパを訪れたのはポルトガル人侵入者によって、おそらく中国南部の沿岸で奴隷にされた中国人の学者がポルトガルに連れて行かれた1540年(あるいはその数年後)という。その中国人はポルトガルの歴史家ジョアン・デ・バロスに購入され、共に中国語の文書をポルトガル語に翻訳する作業に従事したという[28]

16世紀のポルトガルにおいて中国人奴隷の数は「わずかなもの」であり、東インド人、改宗イスラム教徒、アフリカ人奴隷の方が圧倒的に多かった[29]。1562年10月23日に記録された遺書には、エヴォラに住んでいたドナ・マリア・デ・ビリェナ(Dona Maria de Vilhena)という上流階級の婦人が保有するアントニオという名前の中国人奴隷について記載がある[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]。アントニオという名前はエヴォラにおいて男性奴隷に付けられた3つのありふれた名前の1つだった[44]。D. マリアは奴隷の中で特にアントニオを重用していたが、それは彼が中国人だったからである[45]。D. マリアが保有していた15人の奴隷のなかで中国人が1人、インド人が3人、改宗イスラム教徒が3人であったことは彼女の社会的地位の高さを表している。なぜなら中国人奴隷、改宗イスラム教徒奴隷、インド人奴隷は評価が高く黒人奴隷より高価であったからである[46]。D. マリアが死んだ時、その意思と遺言により12人の奴隷を自由の身分とし、さらに合計1万〜2万ポルトガルレアルのお金を彼らに遺している[47]。マリア・デ・ビリェナの父親は上流階級出身の探検家のサンチョ・デ・トバル(Sancho de Tovar)でありソファラ提督であった。D. マリアは二回結婚し、一回目の結婚相手は探検家のクリストバン・デ・メンドンサ(Cristóvão de Mendonça)であり、二回目はディーウの提督のシマン・ダ・シルベイラ(Simão da Silveira)であった[48][49][50]

中国人の子供たちはマカオで誘拐され、まだ幼いうちにリスボンで売り払われた[51][52]。フィリッポ・サッセッティ(Filippo Sassetti)はリスボンの大規模な奴隷集落において、大部分の奴隷が黒人だったものの、いく人かの日本人、中国人の奴隷を見かけたと報告している[53][54][55][56][57]

ポルトガル人は中国人や日本人などのアジア人奴隷をサハラ以南アフリカ出身の奴隷よりもずっと「高く評価していた」[58][59]。ポルトガル人は知性や勤勉さといったものを中国人や日本人奴隷の特質であると見なしていた。このことが奴隷としての高い評価に繋がった[60][61][62][63]

1595年にポルトガルにおいて中国人及び日本人奴隷の売買を禁ずる法律が制定された[64]

マカオおよび中国沿岸部における奴隷交易[編集]

16世紀以降、ポルトガルは中国の海岸部に交易のための港と居住地を確保しようとした。しかしながら基地を確保しようとする初期のこのような活動は、例えば寧波泉州において行われたが、中国人に壊滅させられてしまった。引き続いて今度はポルトガル人入植者が暴力的な侵入を行い、略奪をし、しばしば奴隷狩りを行った[65][66][67][68][69]。 ポルトガル人のこのような振る舞いに対する不満が中国側の省の長官に届き、ポルトガル人の居住施設の破壊とその居住者の一掃が命じられた。1545年に、6万人の中国兵がポルトガル人が住み着いていた場所を急襲し、1,200人の居住者のうち800人が殺害され、25艘の船と42艇のジャンクが破壊された[70][71][72][73]

マカオでは、ポルトガルの初期植民地時代にあたる17世紀中葉までに、約5千人の奴隷が居住していた。さらに2千人のポルトガル人と、増え続ける中国人がおり、中国人は1664年には2万人に達した[74] [75]。 奴隷の数はその後数十年の間に千人から二千人へと減少した[76]。ほとんどの奴隷はアフリカ出身であった。しかしアジア一帯からの出身の奴隷も含まれていた。すなわち、中国人、日本人、マレー人、インドネシア人そしてインド人である。そのほとんどが女性で、多くはポルトガル人の現地妻となっていた[74] [77]

1622年6月24日、オランダ共和国マカオの戦いにおいてマカオを攻撃した。目的はこの地域をオランダ領にすることであった。オランダ軍はコルネリス・ライエルスゾーン(Kornelis Reyerszoon)隊長に率いられた800名の強力な侵略軍であった。数的に劣勢であったポルトガル側はオランダ軍の攻撃を撃退し、攻撃が繰り返されることはなかった。ポルトガル側の大多数はアフリカ人奴隷であった。そしてわずか2〜30人のポルトガル人の兵士と司祭が支援したが、この戦いの犠牲者の大多数はアフリカ人奴隷であった[78] [79] [80] [81]。敗北の後、オランダの総督のヤン・クーンはマカオの奴隷たちについて「我々の民を打ち負かし追い出したのは彼らだ」と述べている [82] [83] [84] [85]。 1800年代の清朝の時期に、イギリス領事は、ポルトガル人が未だに5〜8歳の子ども人身売買していると記している[86] [87] [88]

1814年に嘉慶帝が大清律例・礼律・祭祀の「禁止師巫邪術」の項に1つの条文を付け加えた。これは1821年に改訂が行われ、1826年に道光帝によって公布された。その条文により、ヨーロッパ人、すなわちポルトガル人キリスト教徒で、キリスト教への改宗を反省しない者については新疆にあるイスラームの都市に送り、奴隷の身分にするとされた[89]

奴隷の取扱い[編集]

ポルトガルへの輸送の途上では、奴隷たちは縛られ、手錠南京錠および首輪によってお互いにつなぎ合わされた[90]。ポルトガル人の所有者らは、奴隷たちが死なない限り、奴隷を鞭で打ったり、鎖で縛り付けたり、高温に熱した蝋や脂肪を奴隷の皮膚に注ぎかけたり、好き放題のやり方で奴隷に罰を加えた[91]。 ポルトガル人は奴隷が自分の財産であることを示すために人間用の焼き印も用いていた[92]

奴隷制の禁止[編集]

奴隷交易を非難する声は大西洋奴隷貿易が行われたかなり初期から挙がっていた。その期間のヨーロッパにおいて奴隷制に対する非難を行った初期の人物の1人がドミニコ会のガスパル・ダ・クルス(Gaspar da Cruz)(1550- 1575)であり、彼は奴隷交易業者たちの「自分たちはすでに奴隷にされていた子供らを「合法的に」買っただけだ」という言い分を退けた人物である[93]

大西洋奴隷貿易が行われた初期の時期から、国王はアフリカ人以外の奴隷貿易を止めさせようと考えていた。ポルトガル人に珍重された中国人奴隷の取引は[59]中国当局の官吏の要請に応じる形で取り組まれた。もっとも彼らは一般的に行われてもいたマカオや中国領内における人々を奴隷化する行為について特に反対していたわけではなかったが[94]、何回かに渡って奴隷を領外に運びだすことを止めさせようと試みられた[95]。1595年にポルトガルで民族的に中国人である奴隷の売買を禁止する布告が出された[52][94][96]。そして1744年に清の乾隆帝が中国人の取り扱いを禁止した。さらに1750年に繰り返して命令を出した[97][98]。しかしこれらの法律は奴隷貿易を完全に止めさせることはできず、16世紀には少人数の中国人奴隷がポルトガル南部のポルトガル人奴隷主によって所有されており(29〜34人)[要出典][52]、1700年代まで続けられていた。アメリカ大陸の植民地では、ポルトガル人は中国人、日本人、ヨーロッパ人及びインディアン砂糖プランテーション農場で奴隷として働かせるのを中止した。[いつ?] それはアフリカ人奴隷に限定された。[要出典]

ポルトガル本土およびポルトガル領インドにおけるあらゆる形態の奴隷制の廃止はポンバル侯爵セバスティアン・デ・カルヴァーリョの布告を通じて1761年に行われた。続いて1777年にマデイラで行われた。大西洋奴隷貿易はイギリスの圧力の結果、1836年にはポルトガルおよび他のヨーロッパ勢力にとって確実に違法なものとなっていた。しかしながらアフリカポルトガル植民地においては奴隷制が確実に廃止されたのは1869年であり、米国およびイギリスとの奴隷交易の抑制のための協定に続くものであった。1822年にポルトガルから独立したブラジル帝国では、奴隷制は最終的に1888年に廃止された。

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ HOFFMAN, MICHAEL (2013年5月26日). “The rarely, if ever, told story of Japanese sold as slaves by Portuguese traders”. The Japan Times. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2013/05/26/books/the-rarely-if-ever-told-story-of-japanese-sold-as-slaves-by-portuguese-traders/ 2014年3月2日閲覧。 
  2. ^ “Europeans had Japanese slaves, in case you didn’t know…”. Japan Probe. (2007年5月10日). http://www.japanprobe.com/2007/05/10/europeans-had-japanese-slaves-in-case-you-didnt-know/ 2014年3月2日閲覧。 
  3. ^ HOFFMAN, MICHAEL (2013年5月26日). “The rarely, if ever, told story of Japanese sold as slaves by Portuguese traders”. The Japan Times. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2013/05/26/books/the-rarely-if-ever-told-story-of-japanese-sold-as-slaves-by-portuguese-traders/ 2014年3月2日閲覧。 
  4. ^ “Europeans had Japanese slaves, in case you didn’t know…”. Japan Probe. (2007年5月10日). http://www.japanprobe.com/2007/05/10/europeans-had-japanese-slaves-in-case-you-didnt-know/ 2014年3月2日閲覧。 
  5. ^ Nelson, Thomas (Winter 2004). Monumenta Nipponica (Slavery in Medieval Japan). Vol. 59. Sophia University.. p. 463. 
  6. ^ Monumenta Nipponica: Studies on Japanese Culture, Past and Present, Volume 59, Issues 3-4. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. (2004). p. 463. http://books.google.com/books?id=XoQMAQAAMAAJ&q=Portuguese+and+other+Occidental+sources+are+replete+with+records+of+the+export+of+Japanese+slaves+in+the+second+half+of+the+sixteenth+century.+A+few+examples+should+serve+to+illustrate+this+point.+Very+probably,+the+first+Japanese+who+set+foot+in+Europe+were+slaves.+As+early+as+1555,+complaints+were+made+by+the+Church+that+Portuguese+merchants+were+taking+Japanese+slave+girls+with+them+back+to+Portugal+and+living+with+them+there+in+sin.+By+1571,+the+trade+was+being+conducted+on+such+a+scale+that+King+Sebastian+of+Portugal+felt+obliged+to+issue+an+order+prohibiting+it+lest+it+hinder+Catholic+missionary+activity+in+Kyushsu.&dq=Portuguese+and+other+Occidental+sources+are+replete+with+records+of+the+export+of+Japanese+slaves+in+the+second+half+of+the+sixteenth+century.+A+few+examples+should+serve+to+illustrate+this+point.+Very+probably,+the+first+Japanese+who+set+foot+in+Europe+were+slaves.+As+early+as+1555,+complaints+were+made+by+the+Church+that+Portuguese+merchants+were+taking+Japanese+slave+girls+with+them+back+to+Portugal+and+living+with+them+there+in+sin.+By+1571,+the+trade+was+being+conducted+on+such+a+scale+that+King+Sebastian+of+Portugal+felt+obliged+to+issue+an+order+prohibiting+it+lest+it+hinder+Catholic+missionary+activity+in+Kyushsu.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=j3YVU9-ZKImZ0QHKsIHQCg&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  7. ^ Michael Weiner, ed (2004). Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and imaginary minorites (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 408. ISBN 0415208572. http://books.google.com/books?id=4z_JJfG-hyYC&pg=PA408&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  8. ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed (2005). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 479. ISBN 0195170555. http://books.google.com/books?id=TMZMAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA479&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  9. ^ Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, ed (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 187. ISBN 0195337700. http://books.google.com/books?id=A0XNvklcqbwC&pg=PA187&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  10. ^ Monumenta Nipponica. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. (2004). p. 465. http://books.google.com/books?id=wAdDAAAAYAAJ&q=It+has+come+to+our+attention+that+Portuguese,+Siamese,+and+Cambodians+who+come+to+our+shores+to+trade+are+buying+many+people,+taking+them+captive+to+their+kingdoms,+ripping+Japanese+away+from+their+homeland,+families,+children+and+friends.+This+is+insufferable.+Thus,+would+the+Padre+ensure+that+all+those+Japanese+who+have+up+until+now+been+sold+in+India+and+other+distant+places+be+returned+again+to+Japan.+If+this+is+not+possible,+because+they+are+far+away+in+remote+kingdoms,+then+at+least+have+the+Portuguese+set+free+the+people+whom+they+have+bought+recently.+I+will+provide+the+money+necessary+to+do+this.&dq=It+has+come+to+our+attention+that+Portuguese,+Siamese,+and+Cambodians+who+come+to+our+shores+to+trade+are+buying+many+people,+taking+them+captive+to+their+kingdoms,+ripping+Japanese+away+from+their+homeland,+families,+children+and+friends.+This+is+insufferable.+Thus,+would+the+Padre+ensure+that+all+those+Japanese+who+have+up+until+now+been+sold+in+India+and+other+distant+places+be+returned+again+to+Japan.+If+this+is+not+possible,+because+they+are+far+away+in+remote+kingdoms,+then+at+least+have+the+Portuguese+set+free+the+people+whom+they+have+bought+recently.+I+will+provide+the+money+necessary+to+do+this.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Z3cVU_IElIuQB_2RgNAC&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  11. ^ Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa (2013). Religion in Japanese History (illustrated, reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 144. ISBN 023151509X. http://books.google.com/books?id=lani3dFCC9UC&pg=PA144&dq=Hideyoshi+korean+portuguese+slaves&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wIcVU6fRO6TJ0wHL74HYBg&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Hideyoshi%20korean%20portuguese%20slaves&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  12. ^ Donald Calman (2013). Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism. Routledge. p. 37. ISBN 1134918437. http://books.google.com/books?id=J0KvyZp9VKAC&pg=PA37&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CFwQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  13. ^ Nelson, Thomas (Winter 2004). Monumenta Nipponica (Slavery in Medieval Japan). Vol. 59. Sophia University.. p. 463. 
  14. ^ Monumenta Nipponica: Studies on Japanese Culture, Past and Present, Volume 59, Issues 3-4. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. (2004). p. 463. http://books.google.com/books?id=XoQMAQAAMAAJ&q=Portuguese+and+other+Occidental+sources+are+replete+with+records+of+the+export+of+Japanese+slaves+in+the+second+half+of+the+sixteenth+century.+A+few+examples+should+serve+to+illustrate+this+point.+Very+probably,+the+first+Japanese+who+set+foot+in+Europe+were+slaves.+As+early+as+1555,+complaints+were+made+by+the+Church+that+Portuguese+merchants+were+taking+Japanese+slave+girls+with+them+back+to+Portugal+and+living+with+them+there+in+sin.+By+1571,+the+trade+was+being+conducted+on+such+a+scale+that+King+Sebastian+of+Portugal+felt+obliged+to+issue+an+order+prohibiting+it+lest+it+hinder+Catholic+missionary+activity+in+Kyushsu.&dq=Portuguese+and+other+Occidental+sources+are+replete+with+records+of+the+export+of+Japanese+slaves+in+the+second+half+of+the+sixteenth+century.+A+few+examples+should+serve+to+illustrate+this+point.+Very+probably,+the+first+Japanese+who+set+foot+in+Europe+were+slaves.+As+early+as+1555,+complaints+were+made+by+the+Church+that+Portuguese+merchants+were+taking+Japanese+slave+girls+with+them+back+to+Portugal+and+living+with+them+there+in+sin.+By+1571,+the+trade+was+being+conducted+on+such+a+scale+that+King+Sebastian+of+Portugal+felt+obliged+to+issue+an+order+prohibiting+it+lest+it+hinder+Catholic+missionary+activity+in+Kyushsu.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=j3YVU9-ZKImZ0QHKsIHQCg&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  15. ^ Michael Weiner, ed (2004). Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and imaginary minorites (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 408. ISBN 0415208572. http://books.google.com/books?id=4z_JJfG-hyYC&pg=PA408&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  16. ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed (2005). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 479. ISBN 0195170555. http://books.google.com/books?id=TMZMAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA479&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  17. ^ Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, ed (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 187. ISBN 0195337700. http://books.google.com/books?id=A0XNvklcqbwC&pg=PA187&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  18. ^ Monumenta Nipponica. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. (2004). p. 465. http://books.google.com/books?id=wAdDAAAAYAAJ&q=It+has+come+to+our+attention+that+Portuguese,+Siamese,+and+Cambodians+who+come+to+our+shores+to+trade+are+buying+many+people,+taking+them+captive+to+their+kingdoms,+ripping+Japanese+away+from+their+homeland,+families,+children+and+friends.+This+is+insufferable.+Thus,+would+the+Padre+ensure+that+all+those+Japanese+who+have+up+until+now+been+sold+in+India+and+other+distant+places+be+returned+again+to+Japan.+If+this+is+not+possible,+because+they+are+far+away+in+remote+kingdoms,+then+at+least+have+the+Portuguese+set+free+the+people+whom+they+have+bought+recently.+I+will+provide+the+money+necessary+to+do+this.&dq=It+has+come+to+our+attention+that+Portuguese,+Siamese,+and+Cambodians+who+come+to+our+shores+to+trade+are+buying+many+people,+taking+them+captive+to+their+kingdoms,+ripping+Japanese+away+from+their+homeland,+families,+children+and+friends.+This+is+insufferable.+Thus,+would+the+Padre+ensure+that+all+those+Japanese+who+have+up+until+now+been+sold+in+India+and+other+distant+places+be+returned+again+to+Japan.+If+this+is+not+possible,+because+they+are+far+away+in+remote+kingdoms,+then+at+least+have+the+Portuguese+set+free+the+people+whom+they+have+bought+recently.+I+will+provide+the+money+necessary+to+do+this.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Z3cVU_IElIuQB_2RgNAC&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  19. ^ Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa (2013). Religion in Japanese History (illustrated, reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 144. ISBN 023151509X. http://books.google.com/books?id=lani3dFCC9UC&pg=PA144&dq=Hideyoshi+korean+portuguese+slaves&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wIcVU6fRO6TJ0wHL74HYBg&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Hideyoshi%20korean%20portuguese%20slaves&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  20. ^ Donald Calman (2013). Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism. Routledge. p. 37. ISBN 1134918437. http://books.google.com/books?id=J0KvyZp9VKAC&pg=PA37&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CFwQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  21. ^ Gopal Kshetry (2008). FOREIGNERS IN JAPAN: A Historical Perspective. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 1469102447. http://books.google.com/books?id=OVSMAAAAQBAJ&pg=PT63&dq=Hideyoshi+korean+portuguese+slaves&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wIcVU6fRO6TJ0wHL74HYBg&ved=0CGUQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Hideyoshi%20korean%20portuguese%20slaves&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  22. ^ J F Moran, J. F. Moran (2012). Japanese and the Jesuits. Routledge. ISBN 1134881126. http://books.google.com/books?id=kruXu_m64ccC&pg=PT223&dq=japanese+slaves+portuguese&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xYcVU5uJN5GU0gGF44H4Bw&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=japanese%20slaves%20portuguese&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  23. ^ Robert Gellately, Ben Kiernan, ed (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 277. ISBN 0521527503. http://books.google.com/books?id=k9Ro7b0tWz4C&pg=PA277&dq=Hideyoshi+korean+slaves+guns+silk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=j4QVU-aVIZLo0wG1voCoAg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Hideyoshi%20korean%20slaves%20guns%20silk&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  24. ^ Gavan McCormack (2001). Reflections on Modern Japanese History in the Context of the Concept of "genocide". Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. Harvard University, Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=afCfAAAAMAAJ&q=Other+Koreans+were+sold+as+slaves,+or+exchanged+for+guns,+silk,+or+other+prized+foreign+goods,+either+directly+or+via+third+country+slave+traders,+to+many+countries,+some+finishing+up+as+far+away+as+Portugal.+It+seems+to+me+in+short+that+a+case+...&dq=Other+Koreans+were+sold+as+slaves,+or+exchanged+for+guns,+silk,+or+other+prized+foreign+goods,+either+directly+or+via+third+country+slave+traders,+to+many+countries,+some+finishing+up+as+far+away+as+Portugal.+It+seems+to+me+in+short+that+a+case+...&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zZIVU8C2Kc_LkQfp9ICABg&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  25. ^ Olof G. Lidin (2002). Tanegashima - The Arrival of Europe in Japan. Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 1135788715. http://books.google.com/books?id=FliQAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA170&dq=Hideyoshi+korean+slaves&hl=en&sa=X&ei=u4cVU9vFFtTukQf6-oDABA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=Hideyoshi%20korean%20slaves&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  26. ^ Amy Stanley (2012). Selling Women: Prostitution, Markets, and the Household in Early Modern Japan. Volume 21 of Asia: Local Studies / Global Themes. Matthew H. Sommer. University of California Press. ISBN 0520952383. http://books.google.com/books?id=6yjTKhcy0jYC&pg=PT60&dq=Hideyoshi+korean+portuguese+slaves&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wIcVU6fRO6TJ0wHL74HYBg&ved=0CEgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Hideyoshi%20korean%20portuguese%20slaves&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  27. ^ Boxer 1939, pp. 542–543
  28. ^ Mungello 2009, p. 81
  29. ^ Peter C. Mancall, ed (2007). The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550-1624 (illustrated ed.). UNC Press Books. p. 228. ISBN 080783159X. http://books.google.com/books?id=Vrj4gApIJz4C&pg=PA228#v=onepage&q&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  30. ^ Fonseca 1997, p. 21: "e o chinês, também António, ainda há pouco referido e que era condutor das azémolas de D. Maria de Vilhena"
  31. ^ Jorge Fonseca (1997) (Portuguese). Os escravos em Évora no século XVI. Volume 2 of Colecção "Novos estudos eborenses" Volume 2 of Novos Estudos e Eborenses. Câmara Municipal de Évora. p. 21. ISBN 9729696535. http://books.google.com/books?id=JrlIAAAAYAAJ&q=Finalmente+dois+chinas,+um+deles+azemel+de+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena+e+o+outro+Francisco+China,+de+Francisco+de+Carvalhais,+e+dois+judeus,+ambos+fugidos,+um+em+1575+e+o+outro+em+1577.&dq=Finalmente+dois+chinas,+um+deles+azemel+de+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena+e+o+outro+Francisco+China,+de+Francisco+de+Carvalhais,+e+dois+judeus,+ambos+fugidos,+um+em+1575+e+o+outro+em+1577.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DwgUU4XCEM-s0AG-uIHIBA&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  32. ^ Alberto Da Costa E Silva (2002) (Portuguese). A Manilha e o Libambo. Editora Nova Fronteira. p. 849. http://books.google.com/books?id=Lw65AAAAIAAJ&q=E+oito+anos+mais+tarde,+em+Évora,+uma+certa+Dona+Maria+de+Vilhena+alforriou,+por+testamento,+dez+escravos:+três+amer%C3%ADndios,+dois+mouros,+um+eslavo,+um+negro,+um+pardo,+um+mulato+e+um+chinês.1+Além+de+negros,+não+era+invulgar,+no+Portugal+quinhentista,+encontra-+rem-se+em+cativeiro&dq=E+oito+anos+mais+tarde,+em+Évora,+uma+certa+Dona+Maria+de+Vilhena+alforriou,+por+testamento,+dez+escravos:+três+amer%C3%ADndios,+dois+mouros,+um+eslavo,+um+negro,+um+pardo,+um+mulato+e+um+chinês.1+Além+de+negros,+não+era+invulgar,+no+Portugal+quinhentista,+encontra-+rem-se+em+cativeiro&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lgsUU628JaP40gG-hoGIDw&ved=0CCkQ6wEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  33. ^ Hugh Thomas (2013). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (illustrated ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 119. ISBN 1476737452. http://books.google.com/books?id=lzuEzmO81GwC&pg=PA119#v=onepage&q&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  34. ^ Maria do Rosário Pimentel (1995) (Portuguese). Viagem ao fundo das consciências: a escravatura na época moderna. Volume 3 of Colibri história. Edições Colibri. p. 49. ISBN 9728047754. http://books.google.com/books?id=DrlIAAAAYAAJ&q=Por+sua+vez,+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+rica+e+nobre+dama+eborense,+no+seu+testamento+de+23+de+Outubro+de+1562,+deixou+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia;+Genebra+e+Catarina,+escravas+%C3%ADndias;+Mécia+de+Abreu,+mulher+branca;+Guiomar,+escrava+parda;+Salvador+e+Margarida,+escravos+mouriscos;+António,+china+azamel;+Diogo,+Heitor,+André,+Maria+e+Lu%C3%ADs,&dq=Por+sua+vez,+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+rica+e+nobre+dama+eborense,+no+seu+testamento+de+23+de+Outubro+de+1562,+deixou+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia;+Genebra+e+Catarina,+escravas+%C3%ADndias;+Mécia+de+Abreu,+mulher+branca;+Guiomar,+escrava+parda;+Salvador+e+Margarida,+escravos+mouriscos;+António,+china+azamel;+Diogo,+Heitor,+André,+Maria+e+Lu%C3%ADs,&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Pg4UU_r4J4fs0QGFhoHwBg&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  35. ^ (Portuguese) Viagem ao fundo das consciências: a escravatura na época moderna. Sociedade Histórica da Independência de Portugal (Lisbon, Portugal). Palácio da Independencia. (1966). p. 19. http://books.google.com/books?id=nisXAQAAMAAJ&q=E+no+testamento+duma+grande+dama+eborense,+falecida+em+1562,+notamos+que+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+possu%C3%ADa+uma+...+pois+no+testamento+se+diz:+«Deixo+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia...+forra+Mécia+d'Abreu+mulher+branca+e+Genebra+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+Guimar+escrava+parda+e+Catarina+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+Margarida+escrava+preta+e+Miguel+escravo+mulato,+Isabel+escrava+mourisca+e+António+Chinal+Azavel,+Diogo+e+Heitor+escravos+(não+diz+a+raça),+Salvador+escravo+mourisco,+André,+Maria+e+Lu%C3%ADs+ficam+à+irmã+Leonor».&dq=E+no+testamento+duma+grande+dama+eborense,+falecida+em+1562,+notamos+que+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+possu%C3%ADa+uma+...+pois+no+testamento+se+diz:+«Deixo+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia...+forra+Mécia+d'Abreu+mulher+branca+e+Genebra+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+Guimar+escrava+parda+e+Catarina+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+Margarida+escrava+preta+e+Miguel+escravo+mulato,+Isabel+escrava+mourisca+e+António+Chinal+Azavel,+Diogo+e+Heitor+escravos+(não+diz+a+raça),+Salvador+escravo+mourisco,+André,+Maria+e+Lu%C3%ADs+ficam+à+irmã+Leonor».&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5w4UU5qEGofa0QHqooCIBA&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  36. ^ Fortunato de Almeida (1925) (Portuguese). História de Portugal, Volume 3. F. de Almeida. p. 222. http://books.google.com/books?id=d_hWAAAAMAAJ&q=D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+rica+e+nobre+dama+eborense,+em+seu+testamento,+de+23+de+Outubro+de+1+562,+deixou+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia;+forra+Mécia+de+Abreu,+mulher+branca+e+Genebra,+escrava+%C3%ADndia;+Guiomar,+escrava+parda;+Catarina,+escrava+%C3%ADndia;+Margarida,+escrava+preta;+Miguel,+escravo+mulato;+Isabel,+escrava+mourisca;+António,+china+azamel;+Diogo+e+Heitor,+escravos+(não+diz+a+raça);+Salvador,+escravo+mourisco;+André,+Maria+e+Lu%C3%ADs+ficavam+a+D.+Leonor,+irmã+da+testadora4.&dq=D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+rica+e+nobre+dama+eborense,+em+seu+testamento,+de+23+de+Outubro+de+1+562,+deixou+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia;+forra+Mécia+de+Abreu,+mulher+branca+e+Genebra,+escrava+%C3%ADndia;+Guiomar,+escrava+parda;+Catarina,+escrava+%C3%ADndia;+Margarida,+escrava+preta;+Miguel,+escravo+mulato;+Isabel,+escrava+mourisca;+António,+china+azamel;+Diogo+e+Heitor,+escravos+(não+diz+a+raça);+Salvador,+escravo+mourisco;+André,+Maria+e+Lu%C3%ADs+ficavam+a+D.+Leonor,+irmã+da+testadora4.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BAIVU7G2O4nK0wHEgoCYAQ&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  37. ^ Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Lisbon, Portugal) (1999). Ana Maria Rodrigues. ed (Portuguese). Os Negros em Portugal: sécs. XV a XIX : Mosteiro dos Jerónimos 23 de Setembro de 1999 a 24 de Janeiro de 2000 (illustrated ed.). Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses. p. 77. ISBN 9728325991. http://books.google.com/books?id=JQMsAQAAMAAJ&q=ALFORRlA+DE+DOZE+ESCRAVOS+E+LEGADO+DE+OUTROS+TRÊS+Testamento+de+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+viúva+de+Simão+da+Silveira,+moradora+em+Évora+-+23+de+Outubro+de+1562+/tem+deixo+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia,+e+lhe+deixo+para+sua+sustentação+20+mil+reis+e+deixo+a+Mécia+de+Abreu,+mulher+branca,+forra+e+livre+e+assi+mais+lhe+deixo+20+mil+reis+para+sua+sustentação.+++E+deixo+forra+a+Genebra,+minha+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis,+e+deixo+forra+a+Guiomar+minha+escrava+parda+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Catarina,+minha+escrava+India,+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis.+Deixo+forra+a+Margarida,+escrava+preta+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forro+a+Miguel,+meu+escravo+mulato+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Isabel,+mourisca,+e+deixo+forro+a+António,+china,+meu+azamel,&dq=ALFORRlA+DE+DOZE+ESCRAVOS+E+LEGADO+DE+OUTROS+TRÊS+Testamento+de+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+viúva+de+Simão+da+Silveira,+moradora+em+Évora+-+23+de+Outubro+de+1562+/tem+deixo+forra+a+Maria+Fialha,+mulher+%C3%ADndia,+e+lhe+deixo+para+sua+sustentação+20+mil+reis+e+deixo+a+Mécia+de+Abreu,+mulher+branca,+forra+e+livre+e+assi+mais+lhe+deixo+20+mil+reis+para+sua+sustentação.+++E+deixo+forra+a+Genebra,+minha+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis,+e+deixo+forra+a+Guiomar+minha+escrava+parda+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Catarina,+minha+escrava+India,+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis.+Deixo+forra+a+Margarida,+escrava+preta+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forro+a+Miguel,+meu+escravo+mulato+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Isabel,+mourisca,+e+deixo+forro+a+António,+china,+meu+azamel,&hl=en&sa=X&ei=oAQVU7W3GejS0wGO14H4DQ&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  38. ^ Jorge Fonseca (1997) (Portuguese). Os escravos em Évora no século XVI. Volume 2 of Colecção "Novos estudos eborenses" Volume 2 of Novos Estudos e Eborenses. Câmara Municipal de Évora. p. 30. ISBN 9729696535. http://books.google.com/books?id=JrlIAAAAYAAJ&q=D.+Maria+de+Vilhena+tinha+entre+os+quinze+escravos+que+menciona+no+seu+testamento.+58+-+A.D.E..+F.N..+Evora&dq=D.+Maria+de+Vilhena+tinha+entre+os+quinze+escravos+que+menciona+no+seu+testamento.+58+-+A.D.E..+F.N..+Evora&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rQkUU5nkMayO1AHpjYCwCA&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  39. ^ Jorge Fonseca (1997) (Portuguese). Os escravos em Évora no século XVI. Volume 2 of Colecção "Novos estudos eborenses" Volume 2 of Novos Estudos e Eborenses. Câmara Municipal de Évora. p. 31. ISBN 9729696535. http://books.google.com/books?id=JrlIAAAAYAAJ&q=na+tinha+entre+os+quinze+escravos+que+menciona+no+seu+testamento+um+António,+china,+seu+azemel+(condutor+de+azémolas)(64).+O+mesmo+acontecia+com+D.+Joana+de+Sousa+que,+em+1558,+deixava+ao+seu+azemel+Diogo+as+bestas+que+tivesse&dq=na+tinha+entre+os+quinze+escravos+que+menciona+no+seu+testamento+um+António,+china,+seu+azemel+(condutor+de+azémolas)(64).+O+mesmo+acontecia+com+D.+Joana+de+Sousa+que,+em+1558,+deixava+ao+seu+azemel+Diogo+as+bestas+que+tivesse&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3gkUU9G-FuOz0AGenIL4Dg&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  40. ^ Gabriel Pereira (1886) (Portuguese). Estudos eborenses : historia, arte, archeologia (O Archivo Da Santa Casa de Misericordia d'Evora 2.a Parte)(O testamento de uma grande dama do seculo 16). Evora : Minerva Eborense. p. 5 (575). https://archive.org/stream/estudoseborenses01pere#page/n575/mode/2up 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  41. ^ (Portuguese) O Testamento de uma Grande Dama do Século XVI. p. 27. http://www.bdalentejo.net/BDAObra/obras/77/BlocosPDF/bloco04-25_34.pdf 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  42. ^ Jack D. Forbes (1993). Title Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples (reprint ed.). University of Illinois Press. p. 40. ISBN 025206321X. http://books.google.com/books?id=6aLAeB5QiHAC&pg=PA40#v=onepage&q&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  43. ^ A. C. de C. M. Saunders (1982). A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 0521231507. http://books.google.com/books?id=g0TCPWGGVqgC&pg=PA214#v=onepage&q&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  44. ^ Jorge Fonseca (1997) (Portuguese). Os escravos em Évora no século XVI. Volume 2 of Colecção "Novos estudos eborenses" Volume 2 of Novos Estudos e Eborenses. Câmara Municipal de Évora. p. 24. ISBN 9729696535. http://books.google.com/books?id=JrlIAAAAYAAJ&q=A+comparação+com+o+nome+dos+donos+de+escravos+que+conhecemos+não+teria+vantagens+dado+que+também+estes+eram+uma+camada+restrita+da+população+-+com+grande+peso+da+nobreza+-+em+que+podiam+verificar-se+especificidades+culturais+determinantes+do+uso+dos+nomes.+É+de+destacar+a+coincidência+dos+três+nomes+mais+usados,+quer+pelos+escravos+-+António,+Manuel+e+Francisco+-+quer+pelas+escravas+-+Maria,+Isabel+e+Catarina+-+na+região+de+Évora+e+na+Madeira,+de+acordo+com+o+estudo+de+Alberto+Vieira&dq=A+comparação+com+o+nome+dos+donos+de+escravos+que+conhecemos+não+teria+vantagens+dado+que+também+estes+eram+uma+camada+restrita+da+população+-+com+grande+peso+da+nobreza+-+em+que+podiam+verificar-se+especificidades+culturais+determinantes+do+uso+dos+nomes.+É+de+destacar+a+coincidência+dos+três+nomes+mais+usados,+quer+pelos+escravos+-+António,+Manuel+e+Francisco+-+quer+pelas+escravas+-+Maria,+Isabel+e+Catarina+-+na+região+de+Évora+e+na+Madeira,+de+acordo+com+o+estudo+de+Alberto+Vieira&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XQcUU9ThB-Hz0gHrnYFg&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  45. ^ Jorge Fonseca (1997) (Portuguese). Os escravos em Évora no século XVI. Volume 2 of Colecção "Novos estudos eborenses" Volume 2 of Novos Estudos e Eborenses. Câmara Municipal de Évora. p. 21. ISBN 9729696535. http://books.google.com/books?id=JrlIAAAAYAAJ&q=Os+%C3%ADndios,+chineses+e+mouriscos+parecem+ter+tarefas+mais+exigentes,+como+António,+%C3%ADndio,+cozinheiro+de+D.+Ana+de+Ata%C3%ADde(33)+e+o+chinês,+também+António,+ainda+há+pouco+referido+e+que+era+condutor+das+azemo-+las+de+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena(34).+Aparecem+na+posse+de+pessoas+da+mais+elevada+condição+social,+como+o+infante+D.+Luis,+que+possu%C3%ADa+8+mouriscos+e+apenas+3+pretos,+ou+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+que+dispunha+entre+os+seus+15+cativos+de+uma+gama+etnicamente+variada:+3+%C3%ADndios,+3+mouriscos,+1+china,+uma+preta,+uma+parda+e+um+mulato.+Este+caso+explica-se+pela+presença+no+Oriente+do+marido+desta+senhora,+como+capitão+de+Diu+e+Ormuz.+Simão+da+Silveira+esteve+directamente+implicado+no+tráfico+de+escravos,+tendo+sido+enviado+em+1512+pelo+rei+ao+Congo+para+trazer+cativos(35).&dq=Os+%C3%ADndios,+chineses+e+mouriscos+parecem+ter+tarefas+mais+exigentes,+como+António,+%C3%ADndio,+cozinheiro+de+D.+Ana+de+Ata%C3%ADde(33)+e+o+chinês,+também+António,+ainda+há+pouco+referido+e+que+era+condutor+das+azemo-+las+de+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena(34).+Aparecem+na+posse+de+pessoas+da+mais+elevada+condição+social,+como+o+infante+D.+Luis,+que+possu%C3%ADa+8+mouriscos+e+apenas+3+pretos,+ou+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+que+dispunha+entre+os+seus+15+cativos+de+uma+gama+etnicamente+variada:+3+%C3%ADndios,+3+mouriscos,+1+china,+uma+preta,+uma+parda+e+um+mulato.+Este+caso+explica-se+pela+presença+no+Oriente+do+marido+desta+senhora,+como+capitão+de+Diu+e+Ormuz.+Simão+da+Silveira+esteve+directamente+implicado+no+tráfico+de+escravos,+tendo+sido+enviado+em+1512+pelo+rei+ao+Congo+para+trazer+cativos(35).&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ogEUU-XiBKaW0QGKroGABg&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  46. ^ Jorge Fonseca (1997) (Portuguese). Os escravos em Évora no século XVI. Volume 2 of Colecção "Novos estudos eborenses" Volume 2 of Novos Estudos e Eborenses. Câmara Municipal de Évora. p. 21. ISBN 9729696535. http://books.google.com/books?id=JrlIAAAAYAAJ&q=Aparecem+na+posse+de+pessoas+da+mais+elevada+condição+social,+como+o+infante+D.+Luis,+que+possu%C3%ADa+8+mouriscos+e+apenas+3+pretos,+ou+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+que+dispunha+entre+os+seus+15+cativos+de+uma+gama+etnicamente+variada:+3+%C3%ADndios,+3+mouriscos,+1+china,+uma+preta,+uma+parda+e+um+mulato.+Este+caso+explica-se+pela+presença+no+Oriente+do+marido+desta+senhora,+como+capitão+de+Diu+e+Ormuz.+Simão+da+Silveira+esteve+directamente+implicado+no+tráfico+de+escravos,+tendo+sido+enviado+em+1512+pelo+rei+ao+Congo+para+trazer+cativos(35).+A+posse+de+escravos+dessas+etnias+pelas+classes+mais+altas+devia-se+certamente+ao+seu+mais+elevado+preço.+Efectivamente,+o+valor+dos+escravos+negros+era+de+todos+o+mais+baixo,+pela+sua+maior+abundância+e+bocalidade,+o+que+está+de+acordo+com+o+que+também+se.&dq=Aparecem+na+posse+de+pessoas+da+mais+elevada+condição+social,+como+o+infante+D.+Luis,+que+possu%C3%ADa+8+mouriscos+e+apenas+3+pretos,+ou+D.+Maria+de+Vilhena,+que+dispunha+entre+os+seus+15+cativos+de+uma+gama+etnicamente+variada:+3+%C3%ADndios,+3+mouriscos,+1+china,+uma+preta,+uma+parda+e+um+mulato.+Este+caso+explica-se+pela+presença+no+Oriente+do+marido+desta+senhora,+como+capitão+de+Diu+e+Ormuz.+Simão+da+Silveira+esteve+directamente+implicado+no+tráfico+de+escravos,+tendo+sido+enviado+em+1512+pelo+rei+ao+Congo+para+trazer+cativos(35).+A+posse+de+escravos+dessas+etnias+pelas+classes+mais+altas+devia-se+certamente+ao+seu+mais+elevado+preço.+Efectivamente,+o+valor+dos+escravos+negros+era+de+todos+o+mais+baixo,+pela+sua+maior+abundância+e+bocalidade,+o+que+está+de+acordo+com+o+que+também+se.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EAYUU5DsGMbH0QHDoYDwDA&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  47. ^ Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Lisbon, Portugal) (1999). Ana Maria Rodrigues. ed (Portuguese). Os Negros em Portugal: sécs. XV a XIX : Mosteiro dos Jerónimos 23 de Setembro de 1999 a 24 de Janeiro de 2000 (illustrated ed.). Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses. p. 77. ISBN 9728325991. http://books.google.com/books?id=JQMsAQAAMAAJ&q=E+deixo+forra+a+Genebra,+minha+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis,+e+deixo+forra+a+Guiomar+minha+escrava+parda+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Catarina,+minha+escrava+India,+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis.+Deixo+forra+a+Margarida,+escrava+preta+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forro+a+Miguel,+meu+escravo+mulato+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Isabel,+mourisca,+e+deixo+forro+a+António,+china,+meu+azamel,+e+deixo+forro+a+Diogo,+meu+escravo+e+deixo+forro+a+Heitor,+meu+escravo,+e+deixo+forro+a+Salvador,+meu+escravo+mourisco+e+deixo+a+André,+meu+escravo,+aos+padres+de+Nossa+Senhora+de+Carmo+e+deixo+Maria,+moça,+e+Luis,+ambos+meus+escravos,+à+senhora+D.+Lianor,+minha+irmã.&dq=E+deixo+forra+a+Genebra,+minha+escrava+%C3%ADndia+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis,+e+deixo+forra+a+Guiomar+minha+escrava+parda+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Catarina,+minha+escrava+India,+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis.+Deixo+forra+a+Margarida,+escrava+preta+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forro+a+Miguel,+meu+escravo+mulato+e+lhe+deixo+10+mil+reis+e+deixo+forra+a+Isabel,+mourisca,+e+deixo+forro+a+António,+china,+meu+azamel,+e+deixo+forro+a+Diogo,+meu+escravo+e+deixo+forro+a+Heitor,+meu+escravo,+e+deixo+forro+a+Salvador,+meu+escravo+mourisco+e+deixo+a+André,+meu+escravo,+aos+padres+de+Nossa+Senhora+de+Carmo+e+deixo+Maria,+moça,+e+Luis,+ambos+meus+escravos,+à+senhora+D.+Lianor,+minha+irmã.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LAQVU8PWE-ry0wH_14GwBg&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  48. ^ Cristovão Alão de Morais; Eugénio de Andrea da Cunha e Freitas (1699) (Portuguese). Pedatura lusitana (nobiliário de famílias de Portugal) .... Volume 2. Livraria Fernando Machado. p. 276. http://books.google.com/books?id=FhJ4bRglwQQC&pg=PA276&dq=Leonor+de+Vilhena,+casou+com+Antão+de+Faria&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3WyLU4DMII7ksASrwIHYCA&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Leonor%20de%20Vilhena%2C%20casou%20com%20Antão%20de%20Faria&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  49. ^ Cristovão Alão de Morais; Eugénio de Andrea da Cunha e Freitas (1673) (Portuguese). Pedatura lusitana (nobiliário de famílias de Portugal) .... Volume 4. Livraria Fernando Machado. p. 463. http://books.google.com/books?id=qm4vAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA463&dq=Maria+de+Vilhena,+filha+de+Sancho+de+Tovar&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7GyLU5K3NIzjsATC8oLwDw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Maria%20de%20Vilhena%2C%20filha%20de%20Sancho%20de%20Tovar&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  50. ^ Sociedade Histórica da Independência de Portugal (Lisbon, Portugal) (2000). João Paulo Oliveira e Costa. ed (Portuguese). Descobridores do Brasil: exploradores do Atlântico e construtores do Estado da Índia. Volume 8 of Memória lusíada. Sociedade Histórica da Independência de Portugal. p. 77. ISBN 9729326312. http://books.google.com/books?id=C0N7AAAAMAAJ&q=D.+Maria+de+Vilhena+foi+mulher+de+Cristovão+de+Mendonça,+...+Casou+segunda+vez+com+Simão+da+Silveira,+provedor+das+obras+do+reino33.&dq=D.+Maria+de+Vilhena+foi+mulher+de+Cristovão+de+Mendonça,+...+Casou+segunda+vez+com+Simão+da+Silveira,+provedor+das+obras+do+reino33.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=OkmLU5aLMLDMsQT9gIKwCw&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  51. ^ José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999) (Portuguese). A China No Brasil: Influencias, Marcas, Ecos E Sobrevivencias Chinesas Na Sociedade E Na Arte Brasileiras. UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 8526804367. http://books.google.com/books?id=MyEsAAAAYAAJ&q=Muitos+desses+escravos+chineses+de+Lisboa+tinham+sido+sequestrados+ainda+em+criança+em+Macau+e+vendidos+(não+raro+pelos+próprios+pais)+aos+lusitanos.+O+célebre+jesu%C3%ADta+padre+Matteo+Ricci+estava+a+par+do+comércio+de+escravos+chineses+na+Europa,+já+que+ele+mesmo+os+vira+em+Lisboa,+onde+também+se+encontrava+em+1578;+nunca+porém+o+condenou+formalmente,+até+porque+também+ele+possu%C3%ADa+escravos,+só+que+negros+africanos.+Numa+ocasião+comentou+inclusive+que+o+fato+de+tais+chins+reduzidos+à+escravidão+terem+sido+submetidos+à+força+ao+batismo+podia+bem+ser+a+maneira+que+Deus+encontrara+para+os+conduzir+-por+linhas+tort%C3%ADssimas,+já+se+vê+-à+salvação+eterna.&dq=Muitos+desses+escravos+chineses+de+Lisboa+tinham+sido+sequestrados+ainda+em+criança+em+Macau+e+vendidos+(não+raro+pelos+próprios+pais)+aos+lusitanos.+O+célebre+jesu%C3%ADta+padre+Matteo+Ricci+estava+a+par+do+comércio+de+escravos+chineses+na+Europa,+já+que+ele+mesmo+os+vira+em+Lisboa,+onde+também+se+encontrava+em+1578;+nunca+porém+o+condenou+formalmente,+até+porque+também+ele+possu%C3%ADa+escravos,+só+que+negros+africanos.+Numa+ocasião+comentou+inclusive+que+o+fato+de+tais+chins+reduzidos+à+escravidão+terem+sido+submetidos+à+força+ao+batismo+podia+bem+ser+a+maneira+que+Deus+encontrara+para+os+conduzir+-por+linhas+tort%C3%ADssimas,+já+se+vê+-à+salvação+eterna.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=b38VU_PEArOB0AHowoG4BA&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  52. ^ a b c Teixeira Leite 1999, p. 20: "Já por aí se vê que devem ter sido numerosos os escravos chineses que tomaram o caminho de Lisboa — e por extensão o do Brasil ... Em 1744 era o imperador Qianlong quem ordenava que nenhum Chinês ou europeu de Macau vendesse filhos e filhas, prohibição reiterada em 1750 pelo vice-rei de Cantão."
  53. ^ Jonathan D. Spence (1985). The memory palace of Matteo Ricci (illustrated, reprint ed.). Penguin Books. p. 208. ISBN 0140080988. http://books.google.com/books?ei=DN6hT8zdGKS16AHNsY30CA&id=YmauWWluaqcC&dq=sassetti+chinese+slaves&q=sassetti+scattering+chinese+slaves 2012年5月5日閲覧. "countryside.16 Slaves were everywhere in Lisbon, according to the Florentine merchant Filippo Sassetti, who was also living in the city during 1578. Black slaves were the most numerous, but there were also a scattering of Chinese" 
  54. ^ José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999) (Portuguese). A China no Brasil: influências, marcas, ecos e sobrevivências chinesas na sociedade e na arte brasileiras. UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 8526804367. http://books.google.com/books?ei=_OGhT5PyGobA6AGCh-33CA&id=wNZ6AAAAMAAJ&dq=Muitos+desses+escravos+chineses+de+Lisboa+tinham+sido+sequestrados+ainda+em+crian%C3%A7a+em+Macau+e+vendidos+%28n%C3%A3o+raro+pelos+pr%C3%B3prios+pais%29+aos+lusitanos.+O+c%C3%A9lebre+jesu%C3%ADta+padre+Matteo+Ricci+estava+a+par+do+com%C3%A9rcio+de+escravos+chineses+na&q=escravos+chineses+lisboa+sequestrados 2012年5月5日閲覧. "Idéias e costumes da China podem ter-nos chegado também através de escravos chineses, de uns poucos dos quais sabe-se da presença no Brasil de começos do Setecentos.17 Mas não deve ter sido através desses raros infelizes que a influência chinesa nos atingiu, mesmo porque escravos chineses (e também japoneses) já existiam aos montes em Lisboa por volta de 1578, quando Filippo Sassetti visitou a cidade,18 apenas suplantados em número pelos africanos. Parece aliás que aos últimos cabia o trabalho pesado, ficando reservadas aos chins tarefas e funções mais amenas, inclusive a de em certos casos secretariar autoridades civis, religiosas e militares." 
  55. ^ Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India, 1510-1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?ei=I9-hT_HxO7Ce6QHb75zbCA&id=PHPaAAAAMAAJ&dq=respectable+families+for+sale+as+slaves+in+India.36+Chinese+slaves+and+domestic+servants+were+for+the+most+part+kidnapped+from+their+villages+when+they+were+young&q=circa+1580 2012年5月5日閲覧. "ing Chinese as slaves, since they are found to be very loyal, intelligent and hard working' . . . their culinary bent was also evidently appreciated. The Florentine traveller Fillippo Sassetti, recording his impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa 1580, states that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as cooks." 
  56. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550-1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). 2, illustrated, reprint. p. 225. http://books.google.com/books?ei=xvylT8XlEJDUgAflqoS3AQ&id=qUAsAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Florentine+traveller+Filipe+Sassetti+recording+his+impressions+of+Lisbon%27s+enormous+slave+population+circa+1580%2C+states+that+the+majority+of+the+Chinese+there+were+employed+as+cooks&q=enormous+majority 2012年5月5日閲覧. "be very loyal, intelligent, and hard-working. Their culinary bent (not for nothing is Chinese cooking regarded as the Asiatic equivalent to French cooking in Europe) was evidently appreciated. The Florentine traveller Filipe Sassetti recording his impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa 1580, states that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as cooks. Dr. John Fryer, who gives us an interesting ..." 
  57. ^ José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999) (Portuguese). A China No Brasil: Influencias, Marcas, Ecos E Sobrevivencias Chinesas Na Sociedade E Na Arte Brasileiras. UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 8526804367. http://books.google.com/books?id=MyEsAAAAYAAJ&q=Idéias+e+costumes+da+China+podem+ter-nos+chegado+também+através+de+escravos+chineses,+de+uns+poucos+dos+quais+sabe-se+da+presença+no+Brasil+de+começos+do+Setecentos.17+Mas+não+deve+ter+sido+através+desses+raros+infelizes+que+a+influência+chinesa+nos+atingiu,+mesmo+porque+escravos+chineses+(e+também+japoneses)+já+existiam+aos+montes+em+Lisboa+por+volta+de+1578,+quando+Filippo+Sassetti+visitou+a+cidade,18+apenas+suplantados+em+número+pelos+africanos.+Parece+aliás+que+aos+últimos+cabia+o+trabalho+pesado,+ficando+reservadas+aos+chins+tarefas+e+funções+mais+amenas,+inclusive+a+de+em+certos+casos+secretariar+autoridades+civis,+religiosas+e+militares.&dq=Idéias+e+costumes+da+China+podem+ter-nos+chegado+também+através+de+escravos+chineses,+de+uns+poucos+dos+quais+sabe-se+da+presença+no+Brasil+de+começos+do+Setecentos.17+Mas+não+deve+ter+sido+através+desses+raros+infelizes+que+a+influência+chinesa+nos+atingiu,+mesmo+porque+escravos+chineses+(e+também+japoneses)+já+existiam+aos+montes+em+Lisboa+por+volta+de+1578,+quando+Filippo+Sassetti+visitou+a+cidade,18+apenas+suplantados+em+número+pelos+africanos.+Parece+aliás+que+aos+últimos+cabia+o+trabalho+pesado,+ficando+reservadas+aos+chins+tarefas+e+funções+mais+amenas,+inclusive+a+de+em+certos+casos+secretariar+autoridades+civis,+religiosas+e+militares.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gH8VU4-EDoT1kQeZjIC4BA&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  58. ^ Paul Finkelman (1998). Paul Finkelman, Joseph Calder Miller. ed. Macmillan encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 2. Macmillan Reference USA, Simon & Schuster Macmillan. p. 737. ISBN 0028647815. http://books.google.com/books?id=5s0YAAAAIAAJ&q=In+the+sixteenth+century+North+African+and+black+African+slaves+were+joined+by+captives+from+Brazil,+India,+Southeast+Asia,+China,+and+Japan.+Asian+slaves,+especially+Japanese+and+Chinese,+were+much+more+highly+regarded+than+slaves+from+sub-+Saharan+Africa,+who+in+turn+were+valued+and+trusted+more+than+Muslim+slaves+from+North+Africa.&dq=In+the+sixteenth+century+North+African+and+black+African+slaves+were+joined+by+captives+from+Brazil,+India,+Southeast+Asia,+China,+and+Japan.+Asian+slaves,+especially+Japanese+and+Chinese,+were+much+more+highly+regarded+than+slaves+from+sub-+Saharan+Africa,+who+in+turn+were+valued+and+trusted+more+than+Muslim+slaves+from+North+Africa.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=F4cVU73eApLv0QGWl4DwDQ&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  59. ^ a b Finkelman & Miller 1998, p. 737
  60. ^ Duarte de Sande (2012). Derek Massarella. ed. Japanese Travellers in Sixteenth-century Europe: A Dialogue Concerning the Mission of the Japanese Ambassadors to the Roman Curia (1590). Volume 25 of 3: Works, Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. ISBN 140947223X. ISSN 0072-9396. http://books.google.com/books?id=n2DUmk9XUsMC&pg=RA1-PT294&dq=Japanese,+and+Chinese,+slaves+were+greatly+appreciated+by+the+Portuguese+because+they+were+highly+intelligent+and+industrious&hl=en&sa=X&ei=AokVU_azIeGX0QGO44DACg&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Japanese%2C%20and%20Chinese%2C%20slaves%20were%20greatly%20appreciated%20by%20the%20Portuguese%20because%20they%20were%20highly%20intelligent%20and%20industrious&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  61. ^ A. C. de C. M. Saunders (1982). A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555. Volume 25 of 3: Works, Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0521231507. http://books.google.com/books?id=g0TCPWGGVqgC&pg=PA168#v=onepage&q&f=false 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  62. ^ Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India, 1510-1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=PHPaAAAAMAAJ&q=Jean+Mocquet+in+his+book+Old+China+Hands+records+that+the+Portuguese+were+particularly+desirous+of+securing+Chinese+as+slaves,+since+'they+are+found+to+be+very+loyal,+intelligent+and+hard+working'&dq=Jean+Mocquet+in+his+book+Old+China+Hands+records+that+the+Portuguese+were+particularly+desirous+of+securing+Chinese+as+slaves,+since+'they+are+found+to+be+very+loyal,+intelligent+and+hard+working'&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KokVU4npJqvh0wGdq4C4Dw&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  63. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550-1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P.. p. 225. http://books.google.com/books?id=qUAsAAAAMAAJ&q=Jean+Mocquet+in+his+book+Old+China+Hands+records+that+the+Portuguese+were+particularly+desirous+of+securing+Chinese+as+slaves,+since+'they+are+found+to+be+very+loyal,+intelligent+and+hard+working'&dq=Jean+Mocquet+in+his+book+Old+China+Hands+records+that+the+Portuguese+were+particularly+desirous+of+securing+Chinese+as+slaves,+since+'they+are+found+to+be+very+loyal,+intelligent+and+hard+working'&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KokVU4npJqvh0wGdq4C4Dw&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAQ 2014年2月2日閲覧。. 
  64. ^ Dias 2007, p. 71
  65. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=B9jOp9SlQIwC&pg=PA226&dq=The+Portuguese,+who+considered+all+Eastern+peoples+legitimate+prey,+established+trading+settlements+at+Ningpo+and+in+Fukien,+but+both+were+wiped+out+by+massacres+in+1545+and+1549.&hl=en&ei=_C2fTurjFqrb0QHx9NytCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Portuguese%2C%20who%20considered%20all%20Eastern%20peoples%20legitimate%20prey%2C%20established%20trading%20settlements%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20in%20Fukien%2C%20but%20both%20were%20wiped%20out%20by%20massacres%20in%201545%20and%201549.&f=false 2011年10月18日閲覧. "The Portuguese, who considered all Eastern peoples legitimate prey, established trading settlements at Ningpo and in Fukien, but both were wiped out by massacres in 1545 and 1549. For some years the Portuguese were second only to the" 
  66. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. http://books.google.com/books?ei=gzCfTsmcFYXI0AGv6PySCQ&ct=result&id=MkBwAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=Ningpo+massacre+1545 2011年7月18日閲覧. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  67. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. http://books.google.com/books?ei=4TCfTpa8NKby0gHktryACQ&ct=result&id=ixAhAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=ningpo+massacre+1545 2011年7月18日閲覧. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  68. ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co.. p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=llo-AQAAIAAJ&q=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&dq=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&hl=en&ei=lzGfTrWnGsL40gGyh-2JCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA 2011年7月18日閲覧. "The Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement near Ningpo which was wiped out by massacre in 1545; another Portuguese settlement in Fukien province met a similar fate in 1549, but they finally succeeded in establishing a" (the University of California)
  69. ^ Witold Rodziński (1983). A history of China, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-08-021806-7. http://books.google.com/books?ei=pjGfTvKME-H20gG_68DzCA&ct=result&id=X63tAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+1545+the+Portuguese+colony+in+Ningpo+was+completely+wiped+out+after+three+years+of+existence+and+later%2C+in+1+549%2C+the+same+fate+met+the+settlement+in+Ch%27+iianchou.+Somewhat+later%2C+the+Portuguese+did+succeed+finally+in+gaining&q=1545+wiped 2011年7月18日閲覧. "A further attempt was made by the Portuguese in 1 522 by Affonso de Mello Coutinho which also suffered defeat. In spite of these initial setbacks the Portuguese succeeded, probably by bribing local officials, in establishing themselves in Ningpo (Chekiang) and in Ch'uanchou (Fukien), where considerable trade with the Chinese was developed. In both cases, however, the unspeakably brutal behavious of the Portuguese caused a revulsion of Chinese feeling against the newcomers. In 1545 the Portuguese colony in Ningpo was completely wiped out after three years of existence and later, in 1549, the same fate met the settlement in Ch'iianchou. Somewhat later, the Portuguese did succeed finally in gaining" (the University of Michigan)
  70. ^ A.J. Johnson Company (1895). Charles Kendall Adams. ed. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=VsEXAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=7pUlTrCjAqHe0QGy5JTLCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false 2011年7月18日閲覧。. (Original from the University of California)
  71. ^ Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. (1909). p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=_N1TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=npUlTtjfHojg0QGZlInQCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false 2011年7月18日閲覧。. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  72. ^ Charles Kendall Adams (1895). Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6. NEW YORK: A.J. Johnson Co.. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=jjFOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=WJUlToH1Mcjl0QHy8rj2Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false 2011年7月18日閲覧。. (Original from Princeton University)
  73. ^ Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1902). Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=ntdTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=D5UlTvm8EeTd0QHW76X1Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false 2011年7月18日閲覧。. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  74. ^ a b George Bryan Souza (2004). The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630-1754 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-521-53135-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=nPyg0evI8ykC&pg=PA32&dq=and+soldiers+5000+slaves+20000+Chinese+1643+2000+moradores+(Portuguese+inhabitants)+1644+40000+total+inhabitants+1648&hl=en&ei=XfC6TtDND-jo0QGsscDeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=and%20soldiers%205000%20slaves%2020000%20Chinese%201643%202000%20moradores%20(Portuguese%20inhabitants)%201644%2040000%20total%20inhabitants%201648&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese civil citizens) 1644" 
  75. ^ Stephen Adolphe Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler, Darrell T. Tryon (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. p. 323. ISBN 3-11-013417-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=oCx0D0iE2QoC&pg=PA323&dq=typical+cross+section+of+the+population+consisted+of+about+600+casados,+100-200+other+Portuguese,+some+5000+slaves+and+a+growing&hl=en&ei=bPC6TrzhGIrs0gGKoIzfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=typical%20cross%20section%20of%20the%20population%20consisted%20of%20about%20600%20casados%2C%20100-200%20other%20Portuguese%2C%20some%205000%20slaves%20and%20a%20growing&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "The Portuguese population of Macao was never very large. Between the period 1601 -1669, a typical cross section of the population consisted of about 600 casados, 100-200 other Portuguese, some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese" 
  76. ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 63. ISBN 988-8028-54-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=LP9q1dzVRYQC&pg=PA63&dq=black+slaves+macao&hl=en&ei=Ku66TuyxNcbc0QHP5Z3dDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "This is a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in Macau." 
  77. ^ Trevor Burnard (2010). Gad Heuman, Trevor Burnard. ed. The Routledge history of slavery (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 57. ISBN 0-415-46689-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=b_oSu7nW-m0C&pg=PA57&dq=black+slaves+macao&hl=en&ei=tO26TtyML8Pl0QHiv7jeCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=black%20slaves%20macao&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "South Asia also exported bondspeople: Indians, for example, were exported as slaves to Macao, Japan, Indonesia" 
  78. ^ Indrani Chatterjee, Richard Maxwell Eaton (2006). Indrani Chatterjee, Richard Maxwell Eaton. ed. Slavery and South Asian history (illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-253-21873-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=Nsh8NHDQHlcC&pg=PA238&dq=african+slaves+macau&hl=en&ei=jfe6Tr-9LOfV0QGJ4cXfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=african%20slaves%20macau&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "Portuguese,”he concluded;“The Portuguese beat us off from Macao with their slaves.”10 The same year as the Dutch ... an English witness recorded that the Portuguese defense was conducted primarily by their African slaves,who threw" 
  79. ^ Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. (1996). p. 544. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA544&dq=african+slaves+macau&hl=en&ei=jfe6Tr-9LOfV0QGJ4cXfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=african%20slaves%20macau&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers, citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to take Macau, although they continued to harass" 
  80. ^ Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. ISBN 962-209-486-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=-Gr51C1eS1oC&pg=PA159&dq=invaded+Macau+on+24+June+1622+but+was+defeated+by+a+handful+of+Portuguese+priests,+citizens+and+African+slaves&hl=en&ei=4_i6TtDdLsXb0QHvxejeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=invaded%20Macau%20on%2024%20June%201622%20but%20was%20defeated%20by%20a%20handful%20of%20Portuguese%20priests%2C%20citizens%20and%20African%20slaves&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "invaded Macau on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a handful of Portuguese priests, citizens and African slaves" 
  81. ^ Steven Bailey (2007). Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane (illustrated ed.). ThingsAsian Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-9715940-9-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=Lw6JYOYgjokC&pg=PA15&dq=Macau's+future+as+a+Dutch+colony+seemed+all+but+assured,+since+the+city's+...+still+remained+under+construction+and+its+defenders+numbered+only+about+60+soldiers+and+90+civilians,+who+ranged+from+Jesuit+priests+to+African+slaves&hl=en&ei=UPm6Tv-AHObV0QGyoojeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Macau's%20future%20as%20a%20Dutch%20colony%20seemed%20all%20but%20assured%2C%20since%20the%20city's%20...%20still%20remained%20under%20construction%20and%20its%20defenders%20numbered%20only%20about%2060%20soldiers%20and%2090%20civilians%2C%20who%20ranged%20from%20Jesuit%20priests%20to%20African%20slaves&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "On June 24, 1622, a Dutch fleet under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon assembled a landing force of some 800 armed sailors, a number thought more than sufficient to overpower Macau's relatively weak garrison. Macau's future as a Dutch colony seemed all but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians, who ranged from Jesuit priests to African slaves" 
  82. ^ Ruth Simms Hamilton, ed (2007). Routes of passage: rethinking the African diaspora, Volume 1, Part 1. Volume 1 of African diaspora research. Michigan State University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-87013-632-1. http://books.google.com/books?ei=zvq6TtccxN3RAZH6qNcJ&ct=result&id=3s8VAQAAIAAJ&dq=Jan+Coen%2C+who+had+been+sent+to+establish+a+Dutch+base+on+the+China+coast%2C+wrote+about+the+slaves+who+served+the+Portuguese+so+faithfully%3A+%22It+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+last+year.%22&q=jan+coen 2011年11月4日閲覧. "Jan Coen, who had been sent to establish a Dutch base on the China coast, wrote about the slaves who served the Portuguese so faithfully: "It was they who defeated and drove away our people last year."" (the University of California)
  83. ^ Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos (1968). Studia, Issue 23. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos.. p. 89. http://books.google.com/books?ei=Kfu6TpniFIP10gHPmvXeCQ&ct=result&id=8gdmAAAAMAAJ&dq=85%2C+quotes+a+report+from+the+Dutch+governor-general%2C+Coen%2C+in+1623%3A+%C2%ABThe+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully%2C+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+last+year%C2%BB.&q=coen 2011年11月4日閲覧. "85, quotes a report from the Dutch governor-general, Coen, in 1623: «The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people last year»." (University of Texas)
  84. ^ Themba Sono, Human Sciences Research Council (1993). Japan and Africa: the evolution and nature of political, economic and human bonds, 1543-1993. HSRC. p. 23. ISBN 0-7969-1525-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=8IEFAQAAIAAJ&q=A+year+later,+Captain+Coen+was+still+harping+on+the+same+theme:+%22The+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully,+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+there+last+year%22&dq=A+year+later,+Captain+Coen+was+still+harping+on+the+same+theme:+%22The+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully,+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+there+last+year%22&hl=en&ei=mPu6Tp3hA4LX0QGzl_XeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA 2011年11月4日閲覧. "A year later, Captain Coen was still harping on the same theme: "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year". Captain Coen was" 
  85. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550-1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P.. p. 85. http://books.google.com/books?ei=6fu6TqOmEYLd0QGyq83fCQ&ct=result&id=qUAsAAAAMAAJ&dq=Our+people+saw+very+few+Portuguese%22.+A+year+later+he+was+still+harping+on+the+same+theme.+%22The+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully%2C+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+there+last&q=harping 2011年11月4日閲覧. "The enemy, it was reported, "had lost many more men than we, albeit mostly slaves. Our people saw very few Portuguese". A year later he was still harping on the same theme. "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last" (the University of Michigan)
  86. ^ P. D. Coates (1988). The China consuls: British consular officers, 1843-1943 (2, illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press,. p. 124. http://books.google.com/books?ei=k-C5Tv2zNYHCgAfEh_m5CA&ct=result&id=G-MvAAAAMAAJ&dq=a+Portuguese+slave+trade+in+male+and+female+children+aged+between+5+and+8%2C+whom+Portuguese+bought+for+%243+to+%244&q=trade+children 2011年11月4日閲覧. "a Portuguese slave trade in male and female children aged between 5 and 8, whom Portuguese bought for $3 to $4" (the University of Michigan)
  87. ^ Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. ISBN 962-209-486-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=-Gr51C1eS1oC&pg=PA159&dq=black+slaves+macau&hl=en&ei=du66TvWCDcbw0gH8qaDeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=black%20slaves%20macau&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "Apart from being a centre of coolie-slave trade, Macau was also known as the Oriental Monte Carlo" 
  88. ^ W. G. Clarence-Smith (1985). The third Portuguese empire, 1825-1975: a study in economic imperialism (illustrated ed.). Manchester University Press ND. p. 71. ISBN 0-7190-1719-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=LA28AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA71&dq=19+As+the+African+slave+trade+declined+the+Portuguese+became+involved+in+a+form+of+trade+in+Chinese+labour+which+was+in+effect&hl=en&ei=qfC6Tou9NKTh0QHj483ZCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=19%20As%20the%20African%20slave%20trade%20declined%20the%20Portuguese%20became%20involved%20in%20a%20form%20of%20trade%20in%20Chinese%20labour%20which%20was%20in%20effect&f=false 2011年11月4日閲覧. "As the African slave trade declined the Portuguese became involved in a form of trade in Chinese labour which was in effect a Chinese slave trade." 
  89. ^ Robert Samuel Maclay (1861). Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China. Carlton & Porter. p. 336. http://books.google.com/books?id=BZAPAAAAIAAJ&q=mohammedan#v=onepage&q=mohammedan%20slaves%20to%20beys&f=false 2011年7月6日閲覧。. 
  90. ^ A. Saunders (2010). A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-521-13003-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=g0TCPWGGVqgC&pg=PA14&dq=portuguese+slaves+padlocks&hl=en&ei=yzoeTcS-AYSs8AaA2sGvDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q&f=false 2010年11月14日閲覧。. 
  91. ^ A. Saunders (2010). A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555. Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-521-13003-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=g0TCPWGGVqgC&dq=portuguese+slaves+padlocks&q=chains+hot+fat+wax#v=snippet&q=chains%20hot%20fat%20wax&f=false 2010年11月14日閲覧。. 
  92. ^ Charles Patterson (2002). Eternal Treblinka: our treatment of animals and the Holocaust. Lantern Books. p. 14. ISBN 1-930051-99-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=zkvY1-t3VxMC&pg=PA14&dq=portuguese+branded+slaves&hl=en&ei=cDQeTeLvFMSt8AabxM3hDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=portuguese%20branded%20slaves&f=false 2010年11月14日閲覧。. 
  93. ^ Boxer, Charles Ralph; Pereira, Galeote; Cruz, Gaspar da; Rada, Martín de (1953), South in the sixteenth century: being the narratives of Galeote Pereira, Fr. Gaspar da Cruz, O.P. [and Fr. Martín de Rada, O.E.S.A. (1550-1575)], Issue 106 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, Printed for the Hakluyt Society, pp. 149–152, http://books.google.com/books?id=ImoTAAAAIAAJ  (Includes an translation of Gaspar da Cruz's entire book, with C.R. Boxer's comments)
  94. ^ a b de Pina-Cabral 2002, pp. 114–115: "From very early on, it was recognized that the purchase of Chinese persons (particularly female infants) caused no particular problems in Macao, but that the export of these people as slaves was contrary to the safeguarding of peaceable relations with the Chinese authorities. This point is clearly made by a Royal Decree of 1624 ... [t]hese good intentions were, however, difficult to uphold in the territory where the monetary purchase of persons was easily accomplished and the supply very abundant, particularly of young females."
  95. ^ Maria Suzette Fernandes Dias (2007). Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1-84718-111-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=XHm4AAAAIAAJ&q=The+Japanese+and+the+Chinese+showed+strong+reluctance+to+the+idea+of+their+people+being+taken+as+slaves+by+the+Portuguese.&dq=The+Japanese+and+the+Chinese+showed+strong+reluctance+to+the+idea+of+their+people+being+taken+as+slaves+by+the+Portuguese.&hl=en&ei=PdgOTdDACsP58AaIoLGXDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAA 2010年7月14日閲覧。. 
  96. ^ Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 114. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=SDvOJRO7qu8C&pg=PA115&dq=chinese+declared+that+they+cannot+and+should+not+be+made+captive&hl=en&ei=j7JdTPf4GYT58Abhw-S1DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1624%20royal%20decree&f=false 2010年7月14日閲覧。. 
  97. ^ Mancall 2007, p. 228
  98. ^ José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999). A China no Brasil: influências, marcas, ecos e sobrevivências chinesas na sociedade e na arte brasileiras. Editora da Unicamp. p. 19. ISBN 85-268-0436-7. http://www.fundaj.gov.br/china/texto1.rtf 2010年7月14日閲覧。. 

参考文献[編集]

  • Dias, Maria Suzette Fernandes (2007), Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 238, ISBN 1-84718-111-2 

関連項目[編集]

外部リンク[編集]