ハプログループB (Y染色体)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
ナビゲーションに移動 検索に移動
ハプログループBを含むアフリカ大陸のY染色体ハプログループの移動

ハプログループB (Y染色体)(ハプログループB (Yせんしょくたい)、英: Haplogroup B (Y-DNA))とは分子人類学において人類の父系を示すY染色体ハプログループ(型集団)の分類で、ハプログループBTの子系統で、M60, M181/Page32, P85, P90, V62, V75, V78, V83, V84, V85, V90, V93, V94, V185, V197, V217, V227, V234, V237, V44の変異によって定義されるグループである。60,000-65,000年前にアフリカで誕生したと考えられる。

分布[編集]

アフリカのなかでも特にピグミーに高頻度である。バカ族に63[1]-72%[2]ハザ人英語版に52[3]-60%[4]ヌエル族に50%[5]ムブティ族に33[6]-60%[7]アカ族英語版に35[8]-55%[9]などである。

下位系統[編集]

YCC 2008 tree[10] より

  • B
    • B-M60 (M60, M181, P85, P90)
      • B-M236 (M236, M288)
        • B-M236 (M236)
      • B-M182 (M182)
        • B-M150 (M150)
          • B-M218 (M218)
            • B-M109 (M109, M152, P32)
            • B-G1 (G1)
          • B-M108.1 (M108.1)
            • B-P111 (P111, M43)
        • B-M112 (M112, M192, 50f2(P))
          • B-P6 (P6)
          • B-M115 (M115, M169)
          • B-M30 (M30, M129)
            • B-M108.2 (M108.2)
          • B-P7 (P7)
            • B-P8 (P8, P70)
            • B-MSY2.1 (MSY2.1, M211)
        • B-P112 (P112)
ヒトY染色体ハプログループ系統樹
Y染色体アダム (Y-MRCA)
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
G H IJK
IJ K
I J K1 K2
L T MS NO P K2*
N O Q R

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ Gemma Berniell-Lee, Francesc Calafell, Elena Bosch et al., "Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages," Molecular Biology and Evolution Advance Access published April 15, 2009
  2. ^ Elizabeth T Wood, Daryn A Stover, Christopher Ehret et al., "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes," European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 867–876. (cf. Appendix A: Y Chromosome Haplotype Frequencies)
  3. ^ Alec Knight, Peter A. Underhill, Holly M. Mortensen et al., "African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages," Current Biology, Vol. 13, 464–473 (March 18, 2003).
  4. ^ Sarah A. Tishkoff, Mary Katherine Gonder, Brenna M. Henn et al. (2007), "History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation," Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (10) : 2180–2195. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm155
  5. ^ Hisham Y. Hassan, Peter A. Underhill, Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza, and Muntaser E. Ibrahim, "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History," American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2008).
  6. ^ Fulvio Cruciani, Piero Santolamazza, Peidong Shen et al., "A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes," American Journal of Human Genetics 70:1197–1214, 2002.
  7. ^ Elizabeth T Wood, Daryn A Stover, Christopher Ehret et al., "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes," European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 867–876. (cf. Appendix A: Y Chromosome Haplotype Frequencies)
  8. ^ Fulvio Cruciani, Piero Santolamazza, Peidong Shen et al., "A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes," American Journal of Human Genetics 70:1197–1214, 2002.
  9. ^ Elizabeth T Wood, Daryn A Stover, Christopher Ehret et al., "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes," European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 867–876. (cf. Appendix A: Y Chromosome Haplotype Frequencies)
  10. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). “New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree”. Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC: 2336805. PMID 18385274. http://www.genome.org/cgi/content/abstract/gr.7172008v1.