シェンカー理論

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シェンカー理論(シェンカーりろん、: Schenkerian analysis)は、オーストリアの音楽学者ハインリヒ・シェンカーが提唱した音楽理論

代表的著作[編集]

特にアメリカで広まり、強い影響を与えた。基本理論、楽曲分析、演奏技法に大別され、以下に代表的著作を挙げる。

基本理論[編集]

  • Harmonielehre(『和声法』)
  • Kontrapunkt 1,2(『対位法』)
  • Der freie Satz(『自由作曲法』)

楽曲分析[編集]

  • Beethovens Neunte Sinfonie(『ベートーヴェン第9交響曲』)
  • Beethovens Funfte Sinfonie(『ベートーヴェン第5交響曲の分析』:日本語訳)

演奏技法[編集]

  • Ein Beitrag zur Ornamentik als Einfuhrung zu Ph.E.Bachs Klavierwerke(『古典ピアノ装飾音奏法』:日本語訳)
  • Die letzten funf Sonaten von Beethoven,Erlauterungsausgabe(『ベートーヴェン最後の5つのピアノソナタ、注解版』)

理論の特徴[編集]

基本線[編集]

基本線Urlinieの訳語には、他に 「原旋律」(芦津丈夫訳)、 「根元線」(吉田秀和訳)があるが、ここでは日本語訳書『ベートーヴェン第5交響曲の分析』がある野口剛夫訳に準じた。これは、旋律の細かい音や装飾的な部分などを取り除いて単純化し、音楽の最も基本的な動き・骨格を把握するものである。シェンカーはこれをもとに「基本線表」と称する独自の楽譜を使用して楽曲を分析した。シェンカーは、基本線の追究に生涯をかけてとりくみ、『自由作曲法』で最終的な形を示すに至った。ロマン・ロランは「これを見出したことがベートーヴェンの文献学上、ハインリヒ・シェンカーの最大の功績だった」 と述べている。

和声[編集]

楽曲を徹底して単純化していくと、最後は主調の三和音に行き着く。逆にこのことから、楽曲の創作過程は主三和音の拡大・発展であるということになる。シェンカーは「音度」(Stufe)という言葉を用いて、和声についても独特の概念を示した。これによれば、個々の音度は、特定の和音属性や別の調性を示すのではなく、あくまで主調における座標であるとした。このことで、ひとつの音度が複数の和音を含むことになり、和声をより広くとらえることができる。

遠聴[編集]

シェンカーに共鳴し、ともに楽曲を研究をした指揮者ヴィルヘルム・フルトヴェングラーによれば、遠聴とは遠い地点、ときには楽譜の数ページにもおよぶ大きな連関を聴取する力、その姿勢である。それはシェンカーにとって偉大な古典主義ドイツ音楽を特色づけるものにほかならなかった。遠聴は、フルトヴェングラーにとって、シェンカー理論のもっとも重要な概念であった。

受容[編集]

このように、シェンカーの理論は楽曲を主和音から出発し、そこに還元されていく過程としてとらえるものであり、一般には調性音楽以外には適用できないとされている。これには異論もあるが、実際、ドイツ古典音楽と深く結びついたシェンカーの理論は、それゆえに、現代に通じる音楽理論としては受け入れられていないといえる。しかし、現在クラシック音楽として繰り返し聴かれるものの大半は、まさにシェンカーが研究対象としてとりくんだ楽曲にほかならず、ここに、シェンカー理論の「普遍性」を見出すことができる。

シェンカーの著作は、当時のヨーロッパではあまり重視されなかった。これは、あまりにも細部にこだわる粘着的なところがあって文章自体が読みづらいこと、その上独断的な論調や、当時の他の学者への厳しい非難が含まれているためと考えられる。一方でアメリカで影響力を持ったことは、シェンカーの弟子たちの多くがナチス・ドイツによって国を追われたことが関わっていると考えられている。

翻訳版[編集]

  • 1904 Ein Beitrag zur Ornamentik.
    • 1976 Transl. by H. Siegel, Music Forum 4, pp. 1–139.
    • 1979 Japanese translation by A. Noro and A. Tamemoto.
  • 1906 Harmonielehre.
    • 1954 Harmony, transl. by Elisabeth Mann Borgese, edited and annotated by Oswald Jonas.
    • 1990 Spanish transl. by R. Barce.
  • 1910 Kontrapunkt I.
    • 1987 Counterpoint I, transl. by J. Rothgeb et J. Thym.
  • 1912 Beethovens neunte Sinfonie, 1912
    • 1992 Beethoven's Ninth Symphony: a Portrayal of its Musical Content, with Running Commentary on Performance and Literature as well, transl. by J. Rothgeb, 1992.
    • 2010 Japanese transl. by H. Nishida and T. Numaguchi.
  • 1913 Beethoven, Sonate E dur op. 109 (Erläuterungsausgabe).
    • 2012 Japanese transl. by M. Yamada, H. Nishida and T. Numaguchi.
  • 1914 Beethoven, Sonate As dur op. 110 (Erläuterungsausgabe).
    • 2013 Japanese transl. by M. Yamada, H. Nishida and T. Numaguchi.
  • 1921–1924 Der Tonwille (10 vols.)
    • 2004–2005 Der Tonwille, transl. under the direction of William Drabkin.
  • 1922 Kontrapunkt II.
    • 1987 Counterpoint II, transl. by J. Rothgeb et J. Thym.
  • 1922 "Haydn: Sonate Es-Dur", Der Tonwille III, pp. 3–21.
    • 1988 Transl. by W. Petty, Theoria 3, pp. 105–160.
  • 1923 "J. S. Bach: Zwölf kleine Präludien Nr. 2 [BWV 939]", Der Tonwille IV, 1923, p. 7.
    • 2007 French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1923 "J. S. Bach: Zwölf kleine Präludien Nr. 5 [BWV 926]", Der Tonwille V, pp. 8–9.
    • 2006 French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1924 "Mendelssohn: Venetianisches Gondellied, op. 30, Nr. 6", Der Tonwille X, pp. 25–29.
    • 2011 French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1924 "Schumann: Kinderszenen Nr. 1, Von fremden Ländern und Menschen", Der Tonwille X, pp. 34–35.
    • 2011 French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1924 "Schumann: Kinderszenen op. 15, Nr. 9, Träumerei", Der Tonwille X, pp. 36–39.
    • [2011] French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1925 Beethovens V. Sinfonie. Darstellung des musikalischen Inhaltes nach der Handschrift unter fortlaufender Berücksichtigung des Vortrages und der Literatur, Vienne, Tonwille Verlag et Universal Edition. Reprint 1970.
    • 1971 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony N. 5 in C minor, partial transl. by E. Forbes and F. J. Adams jr., New York, Norton, 1971 (Norton Critical Score 9), pp. 164–182.
    • 2000 Japanese transl. by T. Noguchi.
  • 1925–1930 Das Meisterwerk in der Musik, 3 vols.
    • 1998 transl. under the direction of William Drabkin.
  • 1925 "Die Kunst der Improvisation", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik I, pp. 9–40.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1925 "Weg mit dem Phrasierungsbogen", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik I, pp. 41–60.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1925 "Joh. S. Bach: Sechs Sonaten für Violine. Sonata III, Largo", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik I, pp. 61–73.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
    • 1976 Transl. by J. Rothgeb, The Music Forum 4, p. 141-159.
  • 1925 "Joh. S. Bach: Zwölf kleine Präludien, Nr. 6 [BWV 940]", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik I, pp. 99–105.
    • 2010 French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1925 "Joh. S. Bach: Zwölf kleine Präludien, Nr. 12 [BWV 942]", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik I, 1925, pp. 115–123.
    • 2006 French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1925 "Domenico Scarlatti: Keyboard Sonata in D minor, [L.413]", Das Meisterwerk in der Music I, pp. 125–135.
    • 1986 Transl. by J. Bent, Music Analysis 5/2-3, pp. 153–164.
  • 1925 "Domenico Scarlatti: Keyboard Sonata in G major, [L.486]", Das Meisterwerk in der Music I, pp. 137–144.
    • 1986 Transl. by J. Bent, Music Analysis 5/2-3, pp. 171–179.
  • 1925 "Chopin: Etude Ges-Dur op. 10, Nr. 5", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik I, p. 161-173.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1925 "Erläuterungen", Das Meisterwerk in der Music I, pp. 201–205. (Also published in Der Tonwille 9 and 10 and in Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II.)
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
    • 1986 Transl. by J. Bent, Music Analysis 5/2-3, pp. 187–191.
    • 2011 French transl. by N. Meeùs.
  • 1926 "Fortsetzung der Urlinie-Betrachtungen", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II, pp. 9–42.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1926 "Vom Organischen der Sonatenform", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II, pp. 43–54.
    • 1968 Transl. by O. Grossman, Journal of Music Theory 12, pp. 164–183, reproduced in Readings in Schenker Analysis and Other Approaches, M. Yeston ed., New Haven, 1977, pp. 38–53.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1926 "Das Organische der Fuge, aufgezeigt an der I. C-Moll-Fuge aus dem Wohltemperierten Klavier von Joh. Seb. Bach", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II, p. 55-95
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1926 "Joh. Seb. Bach: Suite III C-Dur für Violoncello-Solo, Sarabande", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II, 1926, pp. 97–104.
    • 1970 Transl. by H. Siegel, The Music Forum 2, pp. 274–282.
  • "Mozart: Sinfonie G-Moll", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II, pp. 105–157.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • "Haydn: Die Schöpfung. Die Vorstellung des Chaos", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II, pp. 159–170.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • "Ein Gegenbeispiel: Max Reger, op. 81. Variationen unf Fuge über ein Thema von Joh. Seb. Bach für Klavier", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II, pp. 171–192.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1930 "Rameau oder Beethoven? Erstarrung oder geistiges Leben in der Musik?", Das Meisterwerk in der Musik III, pp. 9–24.
    • 1973 Transl. by S. Kalib, "Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik: An Annotated Translation," PhD diss., Northwestern University.
  • 1932 Fünf Urlinie-Tafeln.
    • 1933 Five Analyses in Sketch Form, New York, D. Mannes Music School.
    • 1969 New version with a glossary by F. Salzer: Five Graphic Music Analyses, New York, Dover.
  • 1935/1956 Der freie Satz, 2d edition
    • 1979 Free Composition, transl. by E. Oster, 1979.
    • 1993 L'Écriture libre, French transl. by N. Meeùs, Liège-Bruxelles, Mardaga.
    • 1997 Chinese translation by Chen Shi-Ben, Beijing, People's Music Publications.
    • 2004 Russian transl. by B. Plotnikov, Krasnoyarsk Academy of Music and Theatre.

教科書[編集]

  • Oswald Jonas, Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks, Wien, Universal, 1934; revised edition, Einführung in die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers. Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerkes, Wien, Universal, 1972. English translation of the revised edition, Introduction to the Theory of *Heinrich Schenker: The Nature of the Musical Work of Art, transl. J. Rothgeb, New York and London, Longman, 1982.
  • Felix Salzer, Structural Hearing: Tonal Coherence in Music, New York, Charles Boni, 1952.
  • Allen Forte and Steven E. Gilbert, Introduction to Schenkerian Analysis, 1982.
  • Allen Cadwallader and David Gagné, Analysis of Tonal Music. A Schenkerian Approach, New York, Oxford University Press, 3d edition, 2011 (1st edition, 1998).
  • Edward Aldwell and Carl Schachter, Harmony and Voice Leading, Boston, Schirmer, Cengage Learning, 4th edition (with Allen Cadwallader), 2011 (1st edition, 2003).
  • Tom Pankhurst, Schenkerguide. A Brief Handbook and Website for Schenkerian Analysis, New York and London, Routledge, 2008 Schenkerguide website.
  • William Renwick and David Walker, Schenkerian Analysis Glossary.
  • Larry J. Solomon, A Schenkerian Primer.
  • Nicolas Meeùs, Análise schenkeriana, Portuguese (Brasil) translation from the French by L. Beduschi, 2008.
  • Luciane Beduschi and Nicolas Meeùs, Analyse schenkérienne (in French), 2013; several earlier versions archived on the same page. Albanian translation by Sokol Shupo, available on the same webpage.

関連文献[編集]

  • Beach, David, ed. (1983). Aspects of Schenkerian Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300028003
  • Berry, David Carson (2004). A Topical Guide to Schenkerian Literature: An Annotated Bibliography with Indices. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press; ISBN 9781576470954. A thorough documentation of Schenker-related research and analysis. The largest Schenkerian reference work ever published, it has 3600 entries (2200 principal, 1400 secondary) representing the work of 1475 authors. It is organized topically: fifteen broad groupings encompass seventy topical headings, many of which are divided and subdivided again, resulting in a total of 271 headings under which entries are collected.
  • Eybl, Martin and Fink-Mennel, Evelyn, eds. (2006). Schenkerian traditions. A Viennese school of music theory and its international dissemination. Vienna, Cologne, Weimar: Böhlau. ISBN 3-205-77494-9.
  • Jonas, Oswald (1982). Introduction to the theory of Heinrich Schenker: the nature of the musical work of art. ISBN 9780967809939, translated by John Rothgeb. New York and London: Longman. "Most complete discussion of Schenker's theories." (Beach 1983)
  • Blasius, Leslie D. (1996). Schenker's Argument and the Claims of Music Theory, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55085-8.
  • Brown, Matthew (2005). Explaining Tonality: Schenkerian Theory and Beyond. University of Rochester Press. ISBN 1-58046-160-3.
  • Cook, Nicholas (2007). The Schenker Project: Culture, Race, and Music Theory in Fin-de-siècle Vienna. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-974429-7.
  • Essays on the dissemination of Schenkerian thought in the U.S. by David Carson Berry:
    • "The Role of Adele T. Katz in the Early Expansion of the New York 'Schenker School'". Current Musicology. 74: 103–51. 2002.
    • Berry, David Carson (2003). "Hans Weisse and the Dawn of American Schenkerism". Journal of Musicology. 20 (1): 104–56. doi:10.1525/jm.2003.20.1.104.
    • "Victor Vaughn Lytle and the Early Proselytism of Schenkerian Ideas in the U.S". Journal of Schenkerian Studies. 1: 92–117. 2005.
    • "Schenkerian Theory in the United States: A Review of Its Establishment and a Survey of Current Research Topics". Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Musiktheorie. 2 (2–3): 101–37. 2005.
  • Eybl, Martin; Fink-Mennel, Evelyn, eds. (2006). "Hans Weisse (1892–1940)". Schenker-Traditionen: Eine Wiener Schule der Musiktheorie und ihre internationale Verbreitung [Schenker Traditions: A Viennese School of Music Theory and Its International Dissemination]. Vienna: Böhlau Verlag. pp. 91–103. ISBN 978-3-205-77494-5.
  • Katz, A. T. (1935). "Heinrich Schenker's Method of Analysis". The Musical Quarterly. 21 (3): 311–329. doi:10.1093/mq/XXI.3.311. JSTOR 739052.
  • Katz, Adele T. (1945). Challenge to Musical Tradition. A New Concept of Tonality, New York, Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9781174860447 (2011 reprint)
  • Forte, A. (1959). "Schenker's Conception of Musical Structure". Journal of Music Theory. 3 (1): 1–30. doi:10.2307/842996. JSTOR 842996.
  • Forte, Allen and Gilbert, Steven E. (1982). Introduction to Schenkerian Analysis. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-95192-8. Schenker never presented a pedagogical presentation of his theories, this being the first according to its authors.
  • Snarrenberg, Robert (1997). "Schenker's Interpretive Practice." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49726-4.
  • Cadwallader, Allen and Gagné, David (1998). Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510232-0. The second major English-language textbook on Schenkerian analysis"
  • Kalib, Sylvan (1973). Thirteen Essays from The Three Yearbooks “Das Meisterwerk in Der Musik,” by Heinrich Schenker: An Annotated Translation. (Vol.’s I–III). Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University.
  • Westergaard, Peter (1975). An Introduction to Tonal Theory. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 9780393093421
  • Aldwell, Edward, and Schachter, Carl (2003). Harmony and Voice Leading. Schirmer. 2d ed. 2008; 3d ed. (with Allen Cadwallader), 2011. ISBN 0-495-18975-8.
  • Pankhurst, Tom (2008), SchenkerGUIDE: A Brief Handbook and Web Site for Schenkerian Analysis, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97398-8 – an introduction for those completely new to the subject.
  • Salzer, Felix (1952). Structural Hearing: Tonal Coherence in Music. New York: Charles Boni. "The first book to present a reorganization (as well as modification and expansion) of Schenker's writings from a pedagogical standpoint." Beach (1983)
  • Westergaard, Peter (1975). An Introduction to Tonal Theory. New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Yeston, Maury, ed. (1977). Readings in Schenker Analysis and Other Approaches. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Beach, David, ed. (1983). Aspects of Schenkerian Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Epstein, David (1979). Beyond Orpheus – Studies in Musical Structure. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Travis, R. (1959). "Towards a New Concept of Tonality?". Journal of Music Theory. 3 (2): 257–284. doi:10.2307/842853. JSTOR 842853.
  • Travis, R. (1966). "Directed Motion in Schoenberg and Webern". Perspectives of New Music. 4 (2): 85–89. doi:10.2307/832217. JSTOR 832217.
  • Komar, Arthur (1971/1980). Theory of Suspensions: A Study of Metrical Pitch Relations in Tonal Music. Princeton: Princeton University Press/Austin, Texas: Peer Publications. (Beach 1983)
  • Yeston, Maury (1976). The Stratification of Musical Rhythm. New Haven: Yale University Press. (Beach 1983)
  • Narmour, Eugene (1977). Beyond Schenkerism: The Need for Alternatives in Music Analysis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.