ウルトラナショナリズム

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ウルトラナショナリズム: Ultranationalism)とは、「特定の国家あるいは民族の利益を他の何よりも追求する極端なナショナリズム」を意味する用語である[1][2]。日本語では超国家主義と訳されるが、ほとんど逆の意味のスープラナショナリズム(国家を超越した国際機関に主権を委ねるべきとする思想)にも同じ訳語が充てられることがあるので注意。本項では、混同を避ける意味からもウルトラナショナリズムの語を用いる。

ウルトラナショナリズムは、「国家再生 (Palingenesis)」の概念と組み合わさることにより、ファシズムの重要な基盤となり得る[3]。政治思想としては極右に位置付けられ、国によっては一部のウルトラナショナリズム団体をテロ組織として取り締まっている場合もある[4]

ヤヌシュ・ブガジスキによれば、「ウルトラナショナリズムは、最も極端、あるいは発展した形態においてファシズムに似ており、特徴として外国人嫌悪全体主義とさえ言える権威主義的政策、カリスマ的指導者と国家、必ずしも政党の形態をとらない政治運動組織の「有機的統一」という神話の強調などが見いだされる」[5]

ロジャー・グリフィンによれば、ウルトラナショナリズムは本質的に外国人嫌悪であり、「過去の文化史・政治史における自国または自民族の偉大さや、敵勢力を打倒してきた歴史などといったひどく神話化された物語を通して」それ自体を正当化することが知られており、また、「下品な形態の人類学遺伝学優生学を利用して、国家の優越性と使命、さらには悪徳や非人間性を合理化する」ことさえあるという[6]

ウルトラナショナリスト政党[編集]

現在立法府に代表を輩出している政党[編集]

過去に立法府に代表を輩出していた政党[編集]

ウルトラナショナリスト政治団体[編集]

関連項目[編集]

参考文献[編集]

  1. ^ Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  2. ^ Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  3. ^ Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451–53.
  4. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra. “U.S. Designates Russian Ultra-Nationalist Group as Terrorist Organization”. US News. https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2020-04-06/us-designates-russia-based-ultranationalist-group-as-terrorist-organisation-us-official 2020年10月9日閲覧。 
  5. ^ The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-communist Europe. EastWest Institute. p.65. Section author - Janusz Bugajski. Book edited by Johnathan P.Stein. Published by M.E. Sharpe. Published in New York in 2000. Retrieved via Google Books.
  6. ^ Blamires, Cyprian (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia. p. 452. ISBN 9781576079409. https://books.google.com/books?id=dDYRAQAAMAAJ&q=%22%22through+deeply+mythicized+narratives+of+past+cultural+or+political+periods%22 
  7. ^ Katsikas, Stefanos (2011). Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria. I.B. Tauris. p. 64. 
  8. ^ Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. p.87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
  9. ^ The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history”. Washington Post (2019年8月20日). 2019年9月8日閲覧。 “A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ...”
  10. ^ Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition”. The Times (2019年7月23日). 2019年9月8日閲覧。 “A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel’s party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.”
  11. ^ Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party”. The Guardian (2019年7月7日). 2019年9月10日閲覧。 “Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks.”
  12. ^ Mark Magnier (2012年3月8日). “In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes”. Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com. 2015年12月2日閲覧。
  13. ^ “Election Polls: 6-14 Seats for Bennett and Shaked's New Right-wing Party, Labor Party Crashes”. Times of Israel. (2018年12月30日). https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/elections/.premium-israel-elections-far-right-parties-mull-next-steps-after-bennett-s-bombshell-1.6789549 
  14. ^ Can a left-wing alliance stop Salvini from forming a far-right government in Italy?”. France 24 (2019年8月15日). 2020年3月15日閲覧。
  15. ^ “Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw”. The Algemeiner. (2018年1月31日). https://www.algemeiner.com/2018/01/31/polish-interior-minister-issues-last-minute-ban-on-neo-fascist-show-of-force-outside-israeli-embassy-in-warsaw/ 
  16. ^ Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words” (2013年2月21日). 2019年4月1日閲覧。
  17. ^ Van Herpen, Marcel H. (2015). Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34 
  18. ^ Ford, Peter (2018年). “Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform”. Christian Science Monitor. 2018年12月17日閲覧。
  19. ^ “Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U.”. ニューヨーク・タイムズ. (2016年12月17日). https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/17/world/europe/slovakia-european-union-populists-migrants.html 
  20. ^ Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). “No, no es un partido (neo)fascista”. Agenda Pública. http://agendapublica.elpais.com/no-no-es-un-partido-neofascista/. 
  21. ^ Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). “Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal”. Agenda Pública. http://agendapublica.elpais.com/vox-del-nacional-catolicismo-al-ultranacionalismo-neoliberal/. 
  22. ^ Danger on the Swiss Stock Exchange”. INGグループ (2018年12月5日). 2020年3月17日閲覧。 “The ultra-nationalist Swiss People's Party (SVP or UDC) - the most powerful political movement in the country - is campaigning against European agreements.”
  23. ^ Arman, Murat Necip (2007). “The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism”. CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133–151. 
  24. ^ Eissenstat, Howard. (November 2002). “Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism”. Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C. 
  25. ^ Gocek, Fatma Muge (2014). Denial of Violence. Oxford University Press. p. 402 
  26. ^ “Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists”. BBC. (2012年12月25日). https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20824693 2015年3月1日閲覧。 
  27. ^ Tsatsanis, Emmanouil (2011), “Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece”, Journal of Political Ideologies 16 (1): 11–31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, "...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi)." 
  28. ^ Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (2006), Reputational Shields: Why Most Anti-Immigrant Parties Failed in Western Europe, 1980–2005, Nuffield College, University of Oxford, p. 15, http://www.nuffield.ox.ac.uk/Politics/papers/2006/ivarsflatenapsa2006.pdf 
  29. ^ On the Road with Golden Dawn, Greece’s Ultra-Nationalist Party. Time. Published 31 October 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  30. ^ Nippon Kaigi: The ultra-nationalistic group trying to restore the might of the Japanese Empire. ABC News Online. Author - Matthew Carney. Published 2 December 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  31. ^ Abe's cabinet reshuffle”. East Asia Forum (2019年9月14日). 2020年10月3日閲覧。 “Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him — so-called ‘ideological friends’ who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration — such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered ‘reliable’ as the government’s policy leader on national education.”
  32. ^ Japanese minister becomes first in two years to visit Tokyo's controversial Yasukuni Shrine”. South China Morning Post (2019年10月17日). 2020年6月5日閲覧。 “Eto is serving in his first cabinet position and is a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi organisation, whose aims are to revise the “national consciousness” surrounding the prosecution of Japan’s war criminals and to change the nation’s pacifist constitution implemented after the war. The group also promotes “patriotic education”.”
  33. ^ Michal Kolmas, ed (2019). National Identity and Japanese Revisionism. Routledge. ISBN 9781351334396. https://books.google.com/books?id=XUNvDwAAQBAJ&q=Nippon+Kaigi+ultranationalism&pg=PT245. "... and foreign policy are rightwing revisionists organized in groups such as the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi ..." 
  34. ^ Ugo Dessì, ed (2013). Japanese Religions and Globalization. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 9780415811705. https://books.google.com/books?id=ZNhgxGsyzwsC&q=Nippon+Kaigi+ultranationalism&pg=PA146 
  35. ^ “Japan combats rise in hate speech”. Al Jazeera. (2015年11月30日). http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/11/30/japan-encounters-rise-in-hate-speech.html 2020年6月5日閲覧. "... and many don’t speak Korean or have ties to Korea. Even so, ultranationalist groups like Zaitokukai have singled them out and used Japan’s very liberal protection of speech to harass, intimidate and silence Zainichi with noisy street protests and attacks online, often anonymously." 
  36. ^ “Head of anti-foreigner group Zaitokukai to step down”. Japan Times. (2015年11月30日). https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/11/12/national/head-of-anti-foreigner-group-zaitokukai-to-step-down/#.XtnM2NUzaUk 2020年6月5日閲覧. "The longtime chairman of the ultranationalist group Zaitokukai has announced he will step down and even give up his membership in the group, saying the move will eventually bolster the organization’s influence." 
  37. ^ https://stockholmcf.org/germany-seeks-to-ban-ultranationalist-turkish-grey-wolves-symbols/
  38. ^ https://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/24c5f251-70e1-482a-a81a-6644a2e9bc75
  39. ^ https://www.duvarenglish.com/human-rights/2020/05/09/far-right-group-attempts-to-attack-grup-yorum-member-gokceks-grave-to-burn-his-body/
  40. ^ Alessio, Dominic; Meredith, Kristen (2014). “Blackshirts for the Twenty–First Century? Fascism and the English Defence League”. Social Identities 20 (1): 104–118. doi:10.1080/13504630.2013.843058.