^Emin Poljarevic (2015). “Islamism”. In Emad El-Din Shahin. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. https://www.academia.edu/6916999/Islamism_definition_history_and_the_development_of_the_term_The_Oxford_Encyclopedia_of_Islam_and_Politics2017年6月10日閲覧. "Islamism is one of many sociopolitical concepts continuously contested in scholarly literature. It is a neologism debated in both Muslim and non-Muslim public and academic contexts. The term “Islamism” at the very least represents a form of social and political activism, grounded in an idea that public and political life should be guided by a set of Islamic principles. In other words, Islamists are those who believe that Islam has an important role to play in organizing a Muslim-majority society and who seek to implement this belief.".
^John L. Esposito, ed (2014). “Islamist”. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1128. "Term used to describe an Islamic political or social activist. Coined in preference to the more common term “Islamic fundamentalist.” Islamists (al-Islamiyyun) are committed to implementation of their ideological vision of Islam in the state and/or society.".
^William E. Shepard, FranÇois Burgat (rev. by James Piscatori), Armando Salvatore (2009). “Islamism”. In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-0888. "The term “Islamism/Islamist” has come into increasing use in recent years to denote the views of those Muslims who claim that Islam, or more specifically, the Islamic sharīʿah, provides guidance for all areas of human life, individual and social, and who therefore call for an “Islamic State” or an “Islamic Order.” [...] Today it is one of the recognized alternatives to “fundamentalist,” along with “political Islam” in particular. [...] Current terminology usually distinguishes between “Islam,” [...] and “Islamism,” referring to the ideology of those who tend to signal openly, in politics, their Muslim religion. [...] the term has often acquired a quasi-criminal connotation close to that of political extremism, religious sectarianism, or bigotry. In Western mainstream media, “Islamists” are those who want to establish, preferably through violent means, an “Islamic state” or impose sharīʿah (Islamic religious law)—goals that are often perceived merely as a series of violations of human rights or the rights of women. In the Muslim world, insiders use the term as a positive reference. In the academic sphere, although it is still debated, the term designates a more complex phenomenon.".