チャールズ・エリオット (海軍士官)

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サー・チャールズ・エリオット


イギリス対清貿易の商務総監
任期
1836 – 1841
前任者 Sir George Robinson
後任者 Sir Henry Pottinger

香港の行政長官
任期
26 January 1841 – 10 August 1841
前任者 (初代)
後任者 Alexander Johnston (acting)

任期
1846 – 1854
前任者 Sir William Reid
後任者 Freeman Murray

任期
1854 – 1856
前任者 George Harris
後任者 Robert Keate

任期
1863 – 1869
前任者 Sir Edward Hay
後任者 Charles Patey

出生 1801
ドレスデン(ザクセン)
死亡 1875年9月9日
エクセター(イングランド)
配偶者 クララ・ウィンザー (5子)
専業 海軍士官, 外交官, 植民地行政官

チャールズ・エリオット(: Sir Charles Elliot1801年 ? 1875年9月9日)は、バース勲爵士イギリス海軍士官外交官植民地行政官であった。イギリス対清貿易における全権かつ商務総監の在勤中の1841年に香港の初代行政長官となった。イギリス植民地としての香港の創設のキーマンの一人である[1]

ザクセンドレスデンに生まれ、1815年にイギリス海軍に入隊し、翌年、バーバリ海賊に対するアルジェ砲撃に士官候補生として従軍した。4年間の東インド艦隊勤務の後、1820年に本国艦隊に勤務。1822年、西アフリカ戦隊に転属となるとともに尉官に進級。西インド艦隊での勤務の後、1828年に佐官に進級。ハイチでクララ・ウィンザーに出会い、1828年に結婚した。

現役からの退役後、外務省におけるキャリアに就いた。1830年から1833年の間、イギリス領ギアナにおいて奴隷保護官であった。1834年に商務総監ネイピア卿のスタッフ、船務総管として、に赴任した。1836年から1841年までの間、全権商務総監となった。1842年から1846年の間、テキサス共和国臨時代理大使総領事となった。バーミューダ総督(1846年-54年)、トリニダード総督(1854年-56年)、セントヘレナ総督(1863年-69年)を歴任し、1856年にナイトに叙された(バース勲爵士団ナイト・コマンダー)。

初期の経歴[編集]

エリオットは1801年にザクセンのドレスデンにおいて、マーガレット(Margaret)とヒュー・エリオット英語版の間に生まれた[2][3]。彼の伯父は、スコットランド出身の外交官、初代ミントー伯爵ギルバート・エリオット=マーレイ=キニンマウンド[1]で、第2代ミントー伯爵ギルバート・エリオット=マーレイ=キニンマウンドジョージ・イーデンは従兄弟である[3]。彼はイングランドバークシャーレディングで教育を受けた[2]1815年3月26日に彼はイギリス海軍に加わった。as a first-class volunteer on board the レヴァイアサン, which served in the 地中海艦隊.[4] In July 1816, he became a midshipman on board the Minden,[4] in which he served in the bombardment of Algiers against Barbary pirates in August 1816.[5] He then served in the East Indies Station for four years under Sir Richard King. In 1820, he joined the cutter Starling under Lieutenant-Commander John Reeve in the Home Station, and the Queen Charlotte under James Whitshed.[4]

西アフリカと西インド諸島[編集]

In 1821, Elliot joined the Iphigenia under Sir Robert Mends in the West Africa Squadron. On 11 June 1822, he became a Lieutenant while serving in the Myrmidon under Captain Henry John Leeke. He again served in the Iphigenia on 19 June, and in the Hussar under Captain George Harris in the West Indies Station. There, he was appointed to the スクーナー Union on 19 June 1825 and Renegade on 30 August. On 1 January 1826, he was nominated Acting-Commander of the convalescentship Serapis in Port Royal, Jamaica, where on 14 April, he served in the hospital ship Magnificent. After further employment on board the Bustard and Harlequin, he was promoted to Captain on 28 August 1828.[4] Elliot met Clara Genevieve Windsor (1806?85) in Haiti, where she was born and raised.[6] They married in 1828, and had two daughters and three sons: Harriet (1829?96), Hugh (born circa 1831), Gilbert (born 1833), Frederick (1837?1916), and Emma (1842?65).[7]

ギアナ[編集]

After retiring from active military service, Elliot followed a career in the Foreign Office.[5] In 1830, the Colonial Office sent Elliot to Demerara in British Guiana to be Protector of Slaves and a member of the Court of Policy from 1830 to 1833.[8] He was brought home to advise the government of administrative problems relating to the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.[2][5] In a letter to the Treasury in 1833, Prime Minister Lord Howick wrote:

Lord Goderich [Secretary of State for the Colonies] feels himself bound to acknowledge that His Majesty's Government are indebted to him [Elliot], not only for a zealous and efficient execution of the duties of his office, but for communications of peculiar value and importance sent from the Colony during the last twelve months, and for essential services rendered at a critical period since his arrival in this country ... Elliot has contributed far beyond what the functions of his particular office required of him.[6]

中国[編集]

Elliot's residence at the San Francisco Green in Macau
A portrait possibly of Elliot's wife, Clara[9]
Elliot's eldest child, Harriet

In late 1833, Elliot was appointed as Master Attendant to the staff of Lord Napier, Chief Superintendent of British Trade. His position was involved with British ships and crews operating between Macau and Canton.[10] He was appointed Secretary in October 1834, Third Superintendent in January 1835, and Second Superintendent in April 1835.[11] In 1836, he became Plenipotentiary and replaced Sir George Robinson as Chief Superintendent of British Trade.[12][13] Elliot wrote to Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston in 1839 that he regarded the opium trade as a "disgrace and sin ... I have steadily discountenanced it by all the lawful means in my power, and at the total sacrifice of my private comfort in the society in which I have lived for some years past."[14]

During the First Anglo-Chinese War, he was on board the Nemesis during most of the battles.[4] In January 1841, he negotiated terms with Chinese Imperial Commissioner Qishan in the Convention of Chuenpee. Elliot declared, among other terms, the cession of Hong Kong Island to the United Kingdom.[15] However, Palmerston disapproved of the terms and dismissed Elliot. Henry Pottinger was appointed to replace him as plenipotentiary in May 1841.[16] On 29 July, HMS Phlegeton arrived in Hong Kong with dispatches informing Elliot of the news. His administration ended on 10 August. On 24 August, he left Macau, with his family for England. As he embarked on the Atlanta, a Portuguese fort fired a thirteen gun salute.[17]

Historian George Endacott wrote, "Elliot's policy of conciliation, leniency, and moderate war aims was unpopular all round, and aroused some resentment among the naval and military officers of the expedition."[18] Responding to the accusation that "It has been particularly objected to me that I have cared too much for the Chinese", Elliot wrote to Foreign Secretary Lord Aberdeen on 25 June 1842:

But I submit that it has been caring more for lasting British honour and substantial British interests, to protect friendly and helpful people, and to return the confidence of the great trading population of the Southern Provinces, with which it is our chief purpose to cultivate more intimate, social and commercial relations.[19]

その後の歩み[編集]

On 23 August 1842, Elliot arrived in the Republic of Texas, where he was charg? d'affaires and consul general until 1846.[20] He served as Governor of Bermuda (1846?54), Governor of Trinidad (1854?56), and Governor of Saint Helena (1863?69).[2] In the retired list, he was promoted to Rear-Admiral on 2 May 1855, Vice-Admiral on 15 January 1862, and Admiral on 12 September 1865.[5][12]

In Sir Henry Taylor's play, Edwin the Fair (1842), the character Earl Athulf was based on Elliot. Taylor also mentioned Elliot in his poem, "Heroism in the Shade" (1845).[21] Elliot was made Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath in 1856.[2] He died in Witteycombe, Exeter, England, on 9 September 1875.[12]

エリオットと名づけられた場所[編集]

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ a b Endacott 2005, p. 1
  2. ^ a b c d e Dod, Robert P. (1864). The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage, of Great Britain and Ireland for 1864, Including All the Titled Classes. p. 251.
  3. ^ a b Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 4
  4. ^ a b c d e O'Byrne, William R. (1849). A Naval Biographical Dictionary. p. 332.
  5. ^ a b c d Endacott 2005, p. 2
  6. ^ a b Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 11
  7. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 257
  8. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 5
  9. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, pp. 24?25
  10. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 1
  11. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 261
  12. ^ a b c Dictionary of National Biography (1889). Volume 17. p. 251.
  13. ^ Hanes, William Travis; Sanello, Frank (2004). The Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks. p. 33. ISBN 1402201494.
  14. ^ Additional Papers Relating to China (1840). London: Printed by T. R. Harrison. p. 5.
  15. ^ The Chinese Repository (1841). Volume 10. pp. 63?64.
  16. ^ Le Pichon, Alain (2006). China Trade and Empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 39?40. ISBN 0197263372.
  17. ^ Eitel, E. J. (1895). Europe in China: The History of Hongkong from the Beginning to the Year 1882. p. 177.
  18. ^ Endacott 2005, p. 8
  19. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 225
  20. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 201
  21. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 204
  22. ^ Wordie, Jason (2002). Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island. Hong Kong University Press. p. 63. ISBN 9622095631.
  23. ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 134
  24. ^ Wright, Richard N. J. (2000). The Chinese Steam Navy 1862?1945. Chatham Publishing. p. 120. ISBN 1861761449.
  25. ^ "Port Elliot". The Sydney Morning Herald (13 November 2008). Accessed 22 December 2009.

参考文献[編集]

  • Endacott, George Beer (2005). A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 9622097421.
  • Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China Waters. Curzon Press. ISBN 0700711457.

文献[編集]

  • Blake, Clagette (1960). Charles Elliott, R. N. 1801?1875: A Servant of Britain Overseas. London: Cleaver-Hume Press.
官職
先代:
Sir George Robinson
イギリス対清貿易の商務総監
1836 - 1841
次代:
Sir Henry Pottinger
先代:
(初代)
香港の行政長官
1841
次代:
Alexander Robert Johnston (acting)
先代:
William Nelson Hutchinson (acting)
バミューダ総督
1846 - 1852
次代:
William Hassell Eden (acting)
先代:
Arthur William Byles (acting)
バミューダ総督
1853 - 1854
次代:
Montgomery Williams (acting)
先代:
L. Bourchier (acting)
トリニダード総督
1854 - 1856
次代:
B. Brooks (acting)
先代:
Sir Edward Hay Drummond Hay
セントヘレナ総督
1863 - 1869
次代:
Charles George Edward Patey