スロバキア語の歴史

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この記事は表形式のスロバキア語の歴史である。スロバキアの歴史も見ること。


初期の歴史[編集]

500年頃 
スロバキアの地域にスラヴ人が来る。
6世紀7世紀 
スラブ系言語(原スラブ語Proto-Slavic)の中に音韻の差異が生じ始めた。スロヴァキアの領域においても同様である。この変化の結果については、次の9世紀の節参照。
9世紀 
Nitrian principality (till 833) in Slovakia and Great Moravia (833-?907) in Slovakia and Moravia. A dialect exists in central Slovakia that has changed the Proto-Slavic groups –ort-, -olt- in rat-, lat- (as in today standard, Slovak language), e. g. in the name of the Great Moravian prince Rastislav (in Czech Rostislav). Furthermore, the Proto-Slavic –dj-, -tj- has changed to –dz-, -c- (this happened well before the 9th century):
  • before 863: Latin is probably the administrative and liturgical language on this territory
  • 863: The brothers Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius arrive in Great Moravia. The Macedonian Slavic dialect from the region of Thessalonike (also called Old Church Slavonic) becomes the administrative, literary and liturgical language, and the Glagolitic alphabet the corresponding script, in Great Moravia till 885. Latin continues to be used in parallel. Some of the early Old Church Slavonic texts contain elements of the language of the Slavic inhabitants of Great Moravia and Pannonia (which were called Sloviene by Slavic texts at that time). Also, the Glagolitic alphabet, which was invented by Constantine specifically for his mission to Great Moravia, contains the letter g = 8 corresponding to dz, which only existed in Great Moravia at that time (today still in the Slovak language; later also in Poland and temporarily in Bohemia), i. e. it did not exist in Macedonian dialects.
  • 885: The use of the Slavic language (Old Church Slavonic) in Great Moravia is prohibited by the Pope. Latin becomes the administrative and liturgical language again. Many followers and students of Cyril and Methodius flee to Bulgaria, Croatia, later also to Bohemia, Russia and other countries.
10世紀初め 
マジャル人907年大モラヴィア王国を征服して、現代のハンガリーに住みつき、南スラブ人から西スラブ人を切り離して、一時的にスロバキアの南部を征服する。(残っているスロバキアの大部分は11世紀の終わりまでの間にハンガリーの一部になる。)その後に、スロバキア語が大モラヴィア(現在のハンガリー)、スロベニア、およびスラボニアのスラヴ系住民の言語からいくつかの方言として起こる。 既に10世紀に、スロバキアの方言は現代と同じ東スロバキア方言・中央スロバキア方言・西スロバキア方言の3つのグループに分かれていた。他のスラブ諸語と同じく、スロバキア語の嚆矢は、6世紀、7世紀にさかのぼることができるが、スラブ語学者の一般的なコンセンサスでは各スラヴ系言語が異なる言葉と呼べるようになるのは10世紀になってからである。
10世紀19世紀初め 
スロバキアを含むハンガリーで行政、宗教行事、文学に用いられる言語はラテン語であった。平民はスロバキアの方言を話していた。
13世紀14世紀 
Slovak burghers and yeomen start to use the Slovak dialects as administrative languages (together with Latin).The Slovak language consolidates after centuries of quick development.
14世紀 
スロヴァキアで書かれたチェコ語が用いられ始める。これはチェコ人の聖職者が教会の学校で教える際に用いたものである。
15世紀16世紀 
スロバキア語は行政上の目的のために使用され続ける。The written Czech language is also used (together with Latin) by certain Slovaks for certain purposes (書状、ある種の契約、庶民向けの宗教書等 ), but it mostly contains many Slovak elements, and texts written by people with no higher education are always written in Slovak. The reasons for the use of the Czech language are: the absence of a uniform Slovak language standard due to an absence of a Slovak state (whereas the Czech was a more or less standardized language), the fact that it is easier to learn than Latin for Slovaks, studies of many Slovaks at the University of Prague, the influence of the campaigns of the Czech Hussites and of John Giskra (Ján Jiskra) in Slovakia, and the temporary conquest of Moravia by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. In the 16th century, a Cultured Western Slovak, Cultured Central Slovak and a Cultured Eastern Slovak language start to arise (their use will intesify in the 18th century).
17世紀18世紀 
The Lutheran Protestants use the Czech language (since late 16th century; as a liturgical language even till the early 20th century) in the religious sphere, the Catholics the western Slovak language (Cultured Western Slovak, Jesuit Slovak) based on the language used by the educated people from the region of Trnava where the important Jesuit University of Trnava was founded in 1635, and in the profane sphere (especially in the towns) the Slovak language more or less influenced by the Czech is used even in written documents, often with a chaotic orthography. But even the above-mentioned Protestants have replaced many Czech sounds by Slovak ones (e. g. ř by r, ě by e, au by ú, ou by ú etc. ). In eastern Slovakia, a Slovakized standard Polish language is used sometimes (besides Czech, Slovak and Latin) for the same purposes and reasons as the Czech language is used in the remaining Slovakia. Of course, the Latin language continues to be used, especially in state administration. As for politics, many Czech Protestant emigrants came to Slovakia in the late 16th century and especially after the Battle at the White Mountain (1620). After a successful recatholization, however, Slovakia became a largely Catholic country again in the 18th century.
1680年代 – 18世紀 

第二次ウィーン包囲のトルコ人打破の後に、多くのスロバキア人が、徐々に「低地」つまり、現代のハンガリー、セルビア、クロアチア、ブルガリアの地と、トルコの占有後に人口が減少したルーマニアの領域に移住した。これらの地域の住民はそれぞれのスラブ語方言を現在も使っている。

標準化[編集]

17世紀 – 1750年 
Major efforts to establish Slovak as the standard language emerge. For example, in his The Czech Grammar (1603, Prague), Vavrinec Benedikt from Nedožery incites the Slovaks to deepen their knowledge of their Slovak language. Also, Matej Bel in the introduction to the Gramatica Slavico-Bohemica (1745, Bratislava) of Pavol Doležal compares the Slovak language with other outstanding cultured languages. Literary activity in the Slovak language flourishes during the second half of the seventeenth century and continues into the next century.
1763年 
Romuald Hadvabný of Červený Kláštor proposes a detailed (West Slovak) language codification in his Latin-Slovak Dictionary with an outline of the Slovak grammar
1783年 
sk:Jozef Ignác Bajzaがスロバキア語の最初の冒険小説「sk:René Mládenca Príhody a Skúsenosti」を西スロバキア語で公表する。
1787年 
Anton Bernolák, a Catholic priest (died 1813), publishes his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum (Bratislava), in which he codifies a Slovak language standard based on the West Slovak language of the University of Trnava, but containing also some central Slovak elements (e. g the ľ and many words). The language is often called the Bernolák language. Bernolák will continue his codification work in other books in the 1780’s and 1790’s and especially in his huge six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (published only 1825 –1927). This is the first successful establishment of a Slovak language standard. Bernolák’s language will be used by Slovak Catholics (esp. by the writers Juraj Fándly and Ján Hollý), but the Protestants will still write in the Czech language (in its old form used in Bohemia till the 17th century).
1843年 
Young Slovak Lutheran Protestants, led by Ľudovít Štúr, decide to establish and discuss the central Slovak dialect as the new Slovak language standard (instead of both Bernolák’s language used by the Catholics and the Czech language used by older Slovak Lutheran Protestants). The new language is also accepted by some users of the Bernolák language led by Ján Hollý (see also 1851), but is initially criticized by the older Lutheran Protestants led by Ján Kollár (died 1852). This language has been used till today as the standard Slovak language (see 1851). It will be officially declared the new language standard in August 1844. The first Slovak grammar of the new language will be published by Ľudovít Štúr in 1846. For details see Ľudovít Štúr.
1844年 
ブラティスラヴァに在ったハンガリー議会はスロヴァキアを含むハンガリーの公式言語を中世以来使用されてきたラテン語に代えてハンガリー語とする。
1851年 
Advocates of the Štúr language (1843) and of the Bernolák language (1787) agree on a common language standard, which is basically identical with the Štúr language, except that the orthography is changed from a phonologic one to an etymological one (e. g. introduction of y instead of i in some words, writing de, te etc. without a caron etc. ) and some concessions are made to Bernolák’s followers (e. g. past participle ending –l instead of –ou; introduction of ľ). Most of these changes were proposed by the Slovak linguist Martin Hattala in 1850 and then officially established by him in 1852 in the scientific Slovak grammar “Krátka mluvnice slovenská” [A Concise Slovak Grammar]. This language version is used till today, except for minor language reforms in 1902, 1931, 1940, 1953 and 1991

近代史[編集]

1870年代 
オーストリア・ハンガリー帝国の設立(1867年)の後、1874年-1875年にハンガリーの政府は、ハンガリーの1860年代に設立されたわずか3校のスロバキア人の高校を禁止した。また、強いマジャール語化がハンガリーで始まった。
1907年 
Apponyi法で、ハンガリーの政府は、公式にすべてのスロバキア語とドイツ語の小学校をハンガリー語の学校に変更した。そして、スロバキア語とドイツ語は外国語として週に1時間だけ教えることを認められた。
1918年1992年 (except WWII) 
With the establishment of Czechoslovakia in 1918, the Slovak language is saved from a probable extinction (see 1907) and becomes an official language for the first time in history (along with the Czech language). At the same time, the language (especially the vocabulary) is strongly influenced by the Czech language. This holds mainly for the initial years of Czechoslovakia, when many Czech teachers and clerks were active in Slovakia (since Slovaks educated in the Slovak language were missing) and when missing Slovak professional terminology had to be created, as well as for the period after WWII, when most TV programs were broadcast in the Czech language.
1959年1968年 
6巻の「スロバキア語辞書」(SSJ)が公表された。(オンライン・バージョン)。
1993年 
チェコスロバキアスロバキアチェコに分かれる。 スロバキア語はスロバキアの公用語になる。チェコ語に関係したスロバキア語の変化はなお続いている。その理由として、近隣の文化であること、教育的な接触が1992年以降も続いていること、および経済的理由でスロバキアの市場にはチェコ語で書かれた本が1990年以前より増えていることがあげられる。

参考文献[編集]